Skip to main content

Full text of "Pens and types:"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non- commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



PENS AND TYPES 



HINTS AND HELPS 



THOSE WHO WRITE, PRINT, READ, TEACH, 
OR LEARN 



A NEW AND IMPROVED EDITION 



BENJAMIN DREW 



•« A portion to Seven, and also to Eight" 



BOSTON 1889 
LEE AND SHEPARD PUBLISHERS 

IO MILK STREET NEXT " OLD SOUTH MEETING HOUSE " 

NEW YORK CHARLES T. DILLINGHAM 

7l8 AND 7JO BROADWAY 






Ha ■ m C0LL2C" l.T....";/ 

• BEQUtS, ..." 
TJi ...,i£ JEWETT EASTMAN 
1931 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1889, 

By Benjamin Drew, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



C. J. PETERS & SON, 

TYPOGRAPHERS AND ELECTROTYPE**, 
140 HlQN STREET, BOSTON. 

V 



$0 tfl£ fPtJttttJOttJJ 



or 

GEORGE WASHINGTON HOSMER, D.D., 

MY EARLY FRIBND AND INSTRUCTOR, 

THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT. 



Our first edition of "Pens and Types: or Hints 
and Helps for those who Write, Print, or Read," was 
especially prepared for the benefit of persons connected 
with the press. It had, however, a wide circulation 
among persons of all professions, and became a refer- 
ence book in some notable institutions of learning. 

A distinguished lady teacher in a neighboring city 
writes us, "I found the book ["Pens and Types "] of the 
greatest benefit, both in my work of teaching, and in 
the writing I occasionally did for the press. It was an 
invaluable aid to those who were trying to train the 
young in habits of correctness and accuracy in the use 
of their mother tongue. Such a work should never be 
out of print, and I am glad there is to be another edi- 
tion." We might refer to many who have expressed 
similar opinions. 

This second edition contains all that was valuable in 
the first, besides several new chapters and additions, as 
set forth in the author's preface : and on account of its 
past reputation and the merits of the added matter, we 
bespeak anew the favor of printers and teachers, — of 
both which professions Mr. Drew may fairly toft qsra&&» 

5 



6 PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT. 

ered a representative ; and although he has, in his book, 
kept his personality out of sight, even using the edito- 
rial " we," his fitness for a work of this kind will, we 
think, be made apparent by a brief sketch of his career. 

After a school life in which he paid much attention to 
Latin and Greek classics, he learned the trade of printer. 
Soon after attaining his majority, he was employed as 
teacher of a public school in his native town, Plymouth, 
Mass., whence he was summoned to Boston, to take three 
months' charge of the Bowdoin School, during the ill- 
ness and consequent absence of Mr. James Robinson. 
Subsequently he became master in the Otis School, which 
position he occupied during the whole period of its 
continuance. 

While residing in Boston, Mr. Drew was a correspond- 
ent of the "Post," under the signature of Shandy; and 
he also contributed the articles of Dr. Digg and En- 
sign Stkbbings to Shillaber's " Carpet Bag." His con- 
tributions were of a humorous character, and are well 
remembered by many gray -bearded gentlemen of Boston 
and its environs. From this city, Mr. Drew removed to 
Minnesota, where he was Principal of the Public Schools 
of St. Paul. 

After twenty years of teaching, Mr. Drew returned to 
the purlieus of the printing-office, as proof-reader at the 
University Press, Cambridge, and afterward with John 
Wilson & Son, and Alfred Mudge & Son. 

Next he became proof-reader in the Government print- 



PUBLISHERS' ADVERTISEMENT. 1 

hig-office, at Washington, where for more than nine 
years he remained, reading press-proofs of the various 
Government publications, including many volumes issued 
by the Smithsonian Institution, and giving valuable as- 
sistance to the Civil Service Commissioners, in the techni- 
cal examination of proof-readers for the Government 
Departments. At the age of seventy-six he retired from 
public employment, and prepared this second edition for 
the press. May he live long, and enjoy the reward of 
an industrious and useful life — and a huge remunera- 
tion from an enormous sale of his Second Edition. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 



As " man measures man the world over," so it may- 
be presumed that the experience of a laborer in any- 
one department of literature will, in the general, 
tally with that of all others occupying a similar posi- 
tion. This volume gives the results of a proof- 
reader's experience, and such suggestions derived 
therefrom as may, he hopes, be useful to all who 
prepare reading-matter for the press, to all who assist 
in printing and publishing it, and, finally, to the read- 
ing public. 

But as a vein of imperfection runs through all 
human achievement ; and as the most carefully issued 
volume must contain errors, — so this work, if criti- 
cally examined, may perhaps be found to violate, in 
some instances, its own rules ; nay, the rules them- 
selves may appear to be, in some points, erroneous. 
Still, the inexperienced, we feel assured, will find 
herein many things of immediate benefit ; and those 
who need no instruction may have their opinions and 
their wisdom re-enforced by the examples used in 
illustration. So, believing that on the whole it will 

9 



10 PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

be serviceable ; that it contains " a portion " for 
44 seven, and also " for 44 eight," we send this treatise 
to press. And if its perusal shall incite some more 
competent person to produce a more valuable work 
on the topics presented, we shall gladly withdraw, 
and leave him, so far as we are concerned, the undis- 
puted possession of the field. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The extensive circulation of the first edition of 
" Pens and Types," attested by the worn condition 
of the stereotype plates, induces the author to present 
to his friends and the public a new and improved 
edition, embodying the results of a wider experience. 

The most important portions of the first edition 
have been retained. The chapter on Orthography 
has been enlarged by the addition of one correct and 
authorized spelling of the many hundreds of doubt- 
ful words — words to which writer and printer can 
give but one form, while lexicographers give two or 
more. For offices which adopt Webster as the stand- 
ard, Webster's first column has been closely followed ; 
and for those which follow Worcester's style, a list is 
added, adhering to Worcester's first column. Some 
words of the lexicographers' second columns are also 
placed in the lists (e. g. draught as well as drafts 
giving to each word its proper and distinct significa- 
tions. 

Moreover we have in the same chapter placed a 
list of all the words ending in able and ibU ^nVm&l 

11 



12 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

are to be found in ordinary English dictionaries, — 
"whether words in common use or rare or obsolete, — a 
feature which compositors and many others will know 
how to appreciate. 

A chapter on the Right Use of Capitals, with rules 
and examples ; and another on Old Style and its liga- 
tures, with fac-similes from ancient specimens of 
typography, give additional value to this edition. 

The index at the end of the volume will enable 
the reader to find at once any particular rule or direc- 
tion contained in the body of the work. 

Although originally intended for authors and 
printers, this volume will, we are confident, be in 
many respects a valuable reference-book for teachers 
and pupils in the public schools, and in seminaries 
of learning generally. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER PAOB 

I. WRITING FOR THE PRESS 15 

II. Proof-reading 83 

III. Style 59 

IY. General Remarks on Subject-matter of Fore- 
going Three Chapters 66 

V. Punctuation 71 

YI. Orthography 125 

VII. Capitalization 171 

VIII. Old Style 195 

IX. Technical Terms used in this Work .... 202 

X. Various Sizes of Letter 205 

INDEX 207 





PENS AND TYPES. 



CHAPTER I. 

WBITING FOR THE PRESS. 

In an action recently brought against the proprie- 
tors of Lloyd's paper, in London, for damages for 
not inserting a newspaper advertisement correctly, 
the verdict was for the defendant, by reason of the 
illegibility of the writing. 

" The illegibility of the writing " is the cause of 
the larger portion of what are conveniently termed 
" errors of the press." One can scarcely take up a 
periodical publication without finding, from editor or 
correspondent, an apology for some error in a previ- 
ous issue, couched somewhat in this style: "The 
types made us say, in our last, something about the 
ft Dogs of the Seine ' ; we certainly wrote ft Days of 
the League.'" We have no doubt that, in a large 
majority of cases of this sort, if the question between 
"the types " and " the pen " were left to a jury, they 
would, as in the case of Lloyd's paper, decide in 
favor of the types. 

By dint of hard study, by comparison of letters in 

15 



16 PENS AND TYPES. 

various words, and by the sense of the context, the 
compositor generally goes through his task creditably, 
in spite of the "illegibility of the writing." But 
sometimes, in despair, he puts into type that word 
which most nearly resembles an unreadable word in 
the manuscript, making nonsense of the passage be- 
cause he can make nothing else of it. We remember 
a great many instances of this sort, in our own experi- 
ence as a proof-reader, — instances which, according to 
custom, might be attributed to " the types," but which 
were really due to the writers' carelessness alone. 
Thus, in a medical work, it was stated that " This 
case had been greatly aggravated by the ossification 
of warm poultices to the face " ; the author having 
intended to write " application." 

Ames's " Typographical Antiquities " has been made 
to figure as "Typographical Ambiguities," — owing 
to chirographical ambiguity. 

" The reports in the ft Times ' and other journals, 
never give the name of the Lord Chandler." " Chan- 
cellor " was, of course, intended by the writer, but 
this was an " error of the press." 

In an investigation touching the field of a compound 
microscope, a witness was made to say, " It would 
vary with the power of the lye-juice employed." The 
reporter meant to write " eye-piece," but he succeeded 
in writing what the compositor set up. 

The title of a book, — "A Treatise on the Steam- 
engine; with Theological Investigations on the Mo- 
tive Power of Heat." The latter clause might seem 
appropriate to "Fox's Book of Martyrs"; but the 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 17 

transcriber of the title imagined he had written 
"Theoretical." 

A toast, — " The President of the County 

Agricultural Society, — May he enjoy a grim old 
age " : the word was corrected to " green," before 
the whole edition of the paper was worked off. 

We have seen an advertisement of " MattlebrariB 
Universal Geography," — no doubt a very entertain- 
ing work. 

In a treatise on botany, we have been told, "we 
first find those that form the bud, then the calx^ the 
corrola, the stamina and pistol" The writer should 
have spelled correctly, and dotted his is. 

A catalogue of hardware to be sold by auction had 
an item, "3 bbls. English pocket-knives-" This was 
set from " commercial ,# writing, in which "bbls.," 
or something like it, was used as a contraction for 
"bladed." 

" Nature intended man for a social being. Alone 
and isolated, man would become impatient and peev- 
ish" No doubt this is true ; but " the types r were 
to blame again, — the author fancied that he had 
written " impotent, and perish." 

The constitution of a certain corporation appeared 
with the following article in the proof-sheet : " The 
Directors shall have power to purchase, build, equip 
or charter all such steamboats, propellers, or other 
vessels, as the engineers of the Corporation shall in 
their judgment require." Why the Directors should 
be placed at the mercy of the engineers seemed 
unaccountable. But a critical examination of the 



18 PENS AND TYPES. 

manuscript revealed that the "engineers" were 
" exigencies." 

A "Bill of exceptions, having been examined, 
and found unfavorable to the truth, is allowed." 
The Justice who signed the above, understood the 
word which we have italicized to be "conformable." 

"They could not admit those parts of the testi- 
mony until they had examined the plaintiff in regard 
to the poets" — " facts " should have been written 
instead of "poets"; but the "pen" made an error 
which the compositor did not feel at liberty to cor- 
rect. 

We have read in a newspaper a description of a 
battle-field : — "It was fearful to see : the men fell 
in ranks, and marched in pantaloons to their final 
account." This was explained by an erasure and a 
blot on the word " platoons." 

It is very easy to say that errors of the kind we 
have recited, are owing to the ignorance or careless- 
ness of the printers ; but, on the other hand, when 
printed copy is reset, such errors almost never occur, 
— and the absence of errors is in direct ratio to the 
legibility of the copy. 

Men who write much, generally imagine that they 
write well ; but their imagination is often a vain one. 
The writer of the worst manuscript we recollect to 
have met with, expressed surprise when told that 
printers and proof-readers could not read his writing, 
and remarked that he had often been complimented 
on the plainness and neatness of his chirography. 
His memory was, no doubt, excellent, — the compli- 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 19 

ments must have been bestowed in his juvenile days, 
when he was imitating engraved copies. 

While one is imitating a copy, he may, indeed, 
write legibly, nay, even elegantly ; for he has nothing 
to attend to, save the formation of the letters. But 
when one is writing a report or a sermon or a poem, 
his mind is busy with something besides chirography. 

The fact is, that men seldom succeed well in doing 
more than one thing at a time. The itinerant musi- 
cian who imitates the various instruments of a full 
band, may be detected in an occasional discord. 
Paley remarks that we cannot easily swallow while 
we gape ; and, if any one will tiy the experiment, he 
will presently be satisfied that in this statement, at 
least, Paley was physiologically and philosophically 
correct. 

Thus, in the haste of composition, ideas crowding 
upon us faster than the pen can give them per- 
manence, we can bestow little thought on mere 
chirography, writing becomes mechanical, or even 
automatic; and we pay scarcely more attention to 
the forms that follow the pen, than we do to the 
contractions and dilatations of the vocal organs when 
engaged in conversation with an entertaining friend. 

Let school training and practice be the same, yet 
such are the differences of physical conformation 
that handwritings are as various as the individuals 
that produce them ; running through all degrees of 
the scale, from an elegance transcending the engrav- 
er's skill, down to misshapen difficulties and puzzling 
deformity. 



20 PENS AND TYPES. 

But however widely our handwriting may vary 
from Wrifford, Spencer, or Dunton, it is generally 
legible to ourselves, and soon becomes familiar to 
our friends and acquaintances. Hence comes the 
danger that we shall cease to bestow any care upon 
it when others than ourselves and acquaintances are 
concerned , and hence it is, that, with scarcely any 
consciousness of our shortcomings, we are liable to 
impose on an utter stranger the task of decipher- 
ing a piece of manuscript in which not only the 
letters have no proper characterization, but which is 
smutched with erasures, deformed by interlineations, 
and obscured by frequent and needless abbreviations. 

The loss of time spent in endeavoring to read such 
a document, is reckoned among the " small things " 
of which " the law takes no cognizance " ; were it 
otherwise, many of us who fancy that our manuscript 
is above reproach, would be astonished at the number 
of bills collectible outstanding against us. 

The opinion otthe "statists," spoken of in Hamlet, 
that it is " a baseness to write fair," seems prevalent 
even in our day. Most men, on leaving school, 
instead of endeavoring to improve their chirography, 
allow it to deteriorate, and seem to take pride in its 
deteriority , and many learned men write as if afraid 
that legibility would be considered a proof of intel- 
lectual weakness. 

In all other cases of encroaching on the time and 
patience of another, — as, for instance, our failure to 
fulfill an appointment, or calling at an unseasonable 
hour, or seeking advice in an affair wholly our own, 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 21 

— we feel bound to make due apology, nay, some- 
times even acknowledge a sense of shame ; but who 
ever felt regret on hearing that he had put some one 
to the trouble of studying, and guessing .at, a puz- 
zling intricacy of cramped writing ; his victim being 
obliged to seek aid from dictionaries, gazetteers, 
directories, and even experts ? We never heard of a 
man's suffering compunction on this score. 

We say this, referring to ordinary business trans- 
actions between man and man, where bad writing, 
except in rare and extreme cases, does not involve 
pecuniary loss. But when we are writing for the 
press, our duty to write legibly becomes imperative ; 
indeed, a failure in this respect trenches so closely 
upon a violation of the eighth commandment, that it 
can seldom happen but from a want of thought as to 
the relation between those who write and those who 
print. 

Compositors usually work by the piece, and are 
paid a fixed rate per thousand ems. If a line of type 
be divided by vertical lines into equal squares, these 
squares show the number of ems in the line. Sup- 
pose there are twenty such squares ; then fifty lines 
would contain one thousand ems. To set, correct, 
and distribute six thousand ems, is considered a fair 
day's work. With plain, legible copy, this can ordi- 
narily be done; and, at the close of the week, the 
compositor receives full wages ; all parties are satis- 
fied, and no one is entitled to complain. 

But if, at the end of the week, notwithstanding 
the closest application, the compositor has averaged 



22 PENS AND TYPES. 

but four thousand ems per day, whereby he receives 
but two-thirds of the sum he is capable of earning 
under favorable conditions, who is morally respon- 
sible to him for the lacking third ? We need not go 
far to ascertain ; a glance at his " copy " answers the 
question. He has been laboring upon bad manu- 
script. To show the difficulties which have been in 
his way, we will put a supposititious case , — closely 
paralleled, however, in the experience of almost 
every compositor who has worked in a book-office. 
He has been setting up a sermon of the Rev. Mr. 
Z. The society of the reverend gentleman were so 
well pleased with the discourse, that they requested 
a copy for the press. Mr. Z. should, of course, have 
copied the whole manuscript fairly ; for, the haste of 
composition being past, he could have re-written it 
carefully, paying especial attention to chirography, 
spelling out his abbreviations, reducing dislocations, 
bringing interlineations into line, — in short, he 
should have done to the compositor what he would 
that the compositor should do unto him. But, 
instead of this, what did you do, Mr. Z.? Pen 
in hand, you re-read the sermon, making erasures, 
striking out some words and interlining others. You 
crowded new sentences, of two or three lines each, 
between lines already closely written ; and you inter- 
lined these interlineations. You then wrote sundry 
additions on loose pieces of paper, denoting them as 
"A," "B," "C," etc., and then placed the same cap- 
itals in the body of the work, without sufficiently 
explaining that new matter was to be inserted; nei- 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 23 

ther did you make it appear whether the addenda 
were to constitute new paragraphs. And in this 
amorphous condition you allowed the sermon to go 
to the printing-office. It has, too, passed through 
several hands. Some of the pieces belonging to 
"A" have got into "B," and some of the "B'' 
have straggled into " C," — and the printers cannot 
say where they do belong. 

One compositor finds in his " take " * the abbrevi- 
ation "Xn," and, after many inquiries, learns that 
X is the Greek Chi, and so " Xn " signifies " Chris- 
tian." Another hesitates at a phrase which, to his 
eye, seems to read "a parboiled skeptic"; but as 
modern methods with heretics do not include heated 
applications, he asks those about him what the word 
is ; perhaps goes to the proof-reader with it, — such 
things are done sometimes, — for the compositor 
expects ultimately to conform to the proof-reader's 
decision, — and thus he loses five or ten minutes in 
learning that the word is purblind. Now, reverend 
sir, the compositor's time is his money, and if you 
rob him of his time — the inference is obvious. 
Your better course, henceforth, will be to copy 
your manuscript, or employ some one to copy it, in 
a careful, painstaking manner, after all your emenda- 
tions of the text have been made. 

There is a proverb to the effect that lawyers are 
bad penmen , but we think the proverb unjust. So 
far as our experience goes, the handwriting of law- 

1 For this and all other technical terms used in this work, see 
Chapter IX. 



24 PENS AND TYPES. 

yers compares favorably with that of any other class 
of persons, of whatever profession. It is certainly 
as legible as the mercantile style ; since the latter, 
although generally pretty to look at, is often very 
difficult to read, — abounding in flourish and orna- 
ment, which are too often but another name for 
obscurity. Sometimes, too, one meets with, clerkly 
invoices or catalogues, containing remarkably fanciful 
capitals ; we have seen good readers scarcely able to 
decide whether a given initial were a W, an H, or an 
N. We are pleased to learn, however, that one lead- 
ing " Commercial College " has introduced a marked 
improvement in this respect, and now teaches its 
pupils a plain, legible hand, instead of a mass of 
overloaded ornamentation made not so much to be 
read, as simply to be admired. 

But members of the bar, like most other persons, 
dislike the mechanical labor of copying what they 
have once committed to paper. Their arguments, 
and especially their briefs, are sometimes sent to the 
printer in a confused, chaotic mass ; in a shape, or, 
rather, with a want of shape, which, if not resulting 
from inconsiderateness, would be — we were on the 
point of saying — disgraceful. A manuscript of this 
sort, covering but six or eight pages of lettei>paper, 
sometimes requires several hours' labor in reading, 
correcting, and revising, before a presentable proof 
can be obtained. 

Legal documents are often interlarded with techni- 
cal terms in law Latin and old French. Of course 
such terms ought to be made as plain as print. 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 25 

Usually the principal divisions of a brief are indi- 
cated by large roman numerals in the middle of the 
line; the points under these greater divisions, by 
roman numerals at the commencement of para* 
graphs ; smaller divisions, by arabic numerals ; and 
if still smaller divisions are required, these are 
denoted by letters in parenthesis, as (a), (b), (c), 
etc. In the haste of writing, however, it is some- 
times found difficult, perhaps vexatious, to keep the 
run of so nice distinctions, and arabic numerals are 
used throughout, while no proper care is taken to dis- 
tinguish the various divisions of the subject-matter 
by varying indentions. 1 The faults of the manuscript 
reappear in the proof. This leads to much loss of 
time " at the stone " ; and as such work is frequently 
hurried during the sessions of the courts, the delay 
is exceedingly vexatious to all parties concerned. If 
one-eighth of the time now spent in correcting, over- 
running the matter, and revising, were bestowed upon 
perfecting the copy, there would seldom be any delay 
in a well-appointed printing-office. 

When transcripts of records of court are to be 
printed, care should be taken that only the very doc- 
uments that are intended for the press be sent to the 
printing-office. For want of proper attention in this 
matter, it not unfrequently happens that certificates 
of notaries, extraneous documents, and duplicates 
are put in type, to be presently canceled. 

1 We do not mean " indentation " nor yet " indention, " but " in- 
dention," as written in the text. The word is in the mouth of every 
printer, proof-reader, author, and publisher: why should it not be 
inserted in the dictionaries? 



26 PENS AND TYPES. 

We have said something above, touching mercantile 
handwriting. Constant practice with the pen gives 
facility and boldness of execution, — and where these* 
are combined with good taste, chirography approaches 
the dignity of a fine ait, and produces beautiful effects, 
and is seen to be near of kin to drawing and paint- 
ing. In signatures, especially, flourish and ornamen- 
tation have a double use ; they please the eye, and 
they baffle the forger. But when lines stand as near 
each other as in ordinary ruling, the flourish in one 
line interferes with the letters of the next ; and the 
elegance of a well-cut capital will scarcely excuse its 
obtrusiveness, when it obliterates its more obscure 
but equally useful neighbors. 

Further, business men, deeply impressed with the 
value of time, learn to delight in abbreviations. 
Types have been cast to meet some of these, as the 
" commercial a" [(a)] and the "percent" [%]; but 
the compositor is sometimes put to his trumps to cut, 
from German and job letter, imitations of abbrevia- 
tions which never ought to be sent to a printing-office 
as copy. We are not astonished that a merchant of 
Boston once received from a Prussian correspondent 
a request, that if he, the Bostonian, were to write 
again, it might be either in German or in good, plain 
English. We adopt the spirit of this advice; and 
would say to the banker, the broker, the merchant, 
and to their respective clerks, that when they write 
for the press, they should drop ornament, drop 
pedantic abbreviations, drop German, and write in 
plain English. 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 27 

We do not know that there is anything specially 
characteristic in copy furnished by the medical fac- 
ulty, unless it be that their relations of " cases," both 
in medicine and surgery, abound, no doubt neces- 
sarily, in " words of learned length " ; which, being 
unfamiliar to the laity, should be written with con- 
scionable care; every letter performing its proper 
function, and duly articulated to its neighbors. But 
the scientific terms of their art, as written by most 
physicians, are, to the average printer, as illegible as 
the Greek from which a portion of such terms is 
derived. Recipes are seldom got typographically 
correct, until they have passed through three or four 
revisions. Even apothecaries, it is said, sometimes 
put up morphine instead of magnesia ; in which case, 
unless the revising is done in a hurry with the 
stomach-pump, a jury may have something to say 
about the " illegibility of the writing." When 
troublesome consequences arise from misapprehen- 
sion of a Latin word, or of its meaning, we hear 
much said in favor of writing recipes in English. 

But, whatever may be said to the contrary, there 
are weighty, and, we think, irrefutable arguments for 
continuing the use of Latin and Greek terms in 
medical writings, — even in recipes. Since it should 
be so, and certainly is so, we insist here, as elsewhere, 
that all technical terms, proper names, or any words 
on which the context can throw but little, if any, 
light, should be written not with ordinary, but with 
eardinary care, — which new word we hazard, that 
our meaning may make a deeper impression. 



28 PENS AND TYPES. 

In passing, we may remark that the mode of indi- 
cating names of remedies comes under the head of 
44 Style " (see Chapter III.), and varies in different 
offices. Names of medicines are often abbreviated, 
and set in italics ; and when a generic word is used, it 
should be capitalized ; as, " Dr. I. administered Bhus 
toz. %y In homeopathic works, the number expressing 
a dilution or trituration is placed in superiors at the 
right ; as, 44 Ordered Cuprum metallicum m ." 

A few suggestions to those who write any kind of 
copy for the press, will close this part of our subject. 

Write on only one side of the paper. 

If you wish to make an addition to a page, do not 
write it on the back of the sheet ; cut the leaf, and 
paste the new matter in, just where it belongs, being 
careful not to cover up so much as a single letter in 
doing so: we have known lines to be omitted by 
the compositor, in consequence of careless pasting. 
The leaf having thus been lengthened, you may, for 
the sake of convenience, fold the lower edge forward 
upon the writing. This minute direction may seem 
idle ; but when a portion of the leaf has been folded 
backward, out of sight, the folded part may very 
likely escape notice, and, to insert it, many pages of 
matter may afterward require to be overrun: we 
have known such cases. 

Abbreviate those words only, which you wish the 
printer to abbreviate. 

Never erase with a lead pencil ; for an erasure with 
lead leaves it questionable whether or not the marked 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 29 

word is to go in. Use ink, drawing the pen horizon- 
tally through the words or lines to be omitted ; and 
be careful that the marking leave off on exactly the 
right word. If you afterward regret the cancellation, 
you may write " stet " in the margin, and place dots 
under the canceled words; but as "stet" may not be 
noticed, in the presence of obvious erasures, the 
better way will be to re-write the passage, and paste 
it in the place you wish it to occupy. 

Take time to write plainly and legibly. In writing 
for the press, the old adage holds good, — " The more 
haste, the worse speed " ; arjd for every hour you save 
by writing hurriedly, you will be called upon to pay 
for several hours' labor in making corrections. Write 
joinhand: mistakes often arise from a long word 
being broken up, as it were, into two or three words. 

I and J are often mistaken for each other. Either 
imitate the printed letters, or uniformly carry the 
loop of the J below the line. 

It is often impossible to distinguish Jan. from June, 
in manuscript, unless the context furnishes a clew. 

Whatever may be the divisions of your work (as 
books, chapters, sections, cantos, and the like), let 
your entire manuscript be paged in the order of the 
natural series of numbers from 1 upward. If you 
commence each division with 1, — as is sometimes 
done, — and two or three divisions are given out as 
44 takes " to compositors, it is obvious that portions 
of one division may exchange places with those of 
another; and, further, if leaves happen to become 
transposed, they can readily be restored to their right 



30 PENS AND TYPES. 

places if no duplicate numbers have been used in 
indicating the pages. 

Make sure that the books, chapters, etc., are num- 
bered consecutively. The best proof-reader must 
confess to some unguarded moments ; and it would 
be very awkward, after having had two hundred and 
forty chapters stereotyped, to find that two chapter 
V.'s have been cast, that eveiy subsequent chapter is 
numbered one less than it should have been, and that 
compositor and proof-reader have exactly followed 
copy. 

Examine your manuscript carefully with reference 
to the points. Avoid the dash when any other point 
will answer your purpose. A manuscript that is 
over-punctuated occasions more perplexity than one 
that is scarcely pointed at all. 

Before sending it to press, get your manuscript 
into a shape you can abide by. Alterations made on 
the proof-sheet must be paid for ; and, further, matter 
that has undergone alterations seldom makes a hand- 
some page: some lines will appear crowded, others 
too widely spaced. 

In writing a footnote * let it immediately follow 

1 In many works the footnotes, by a slight change of arrangement, 
might advantageously become a portion of the text. 

the line of text which contains the asterisk, or other 
reference-mark ; just as you see in the above exam- 
ple, and do not write it at the bottom of the manu- 
script page. The person who makes up the matter 
will transfer such note to its proper place. 

If you feel obliged to strike out & word from the 



WRITING FOR THE PRESS. 31 

proof, endeavor to insert another, in the same sen- 
tence, and in the same line if possible, to fill the 
space. So, if you insert a word or words, see whether 
you can strike out, nearly at the same place, as much 
as you insert. 

When writing for the press, never use a lead 
pencil. Let your copy be made with black ink on 
good white paper. We have been pained to see the 
checkered pages of a report to an extensive religious 
association, which report had been in the first place 
wholly written with a lead pencil : then words can- 
celed, words interlined, various changes made, — 
and all these alterations done with pen and ink. Of 
course, sleeve and hand rubbing over the plumbago 
gave the whole a dingy and blurred appearance. The 
effect of the ink sprinkled among the faded pencil- 
ings was so much like that of mending an old 
garment with new cloth, that the manuscript had 
an unchristian, nay, even heathenish aspect. How- 
ever, from this copy the report was printed, — let 
us charitably hope that it did much good in the 
world. 

If proof-sheets present peculiarities of spelling and 
language, such for instance as appear in ancient 
works, and which are affected or indulged in by some 
moderns, every word whose correctness he doubts 
and is unable to verify, should be referred by the 
proof-reader to author or editor. The latter, familiar 
with the terms used, may consider some queries friv- 
olous or puerile; but an author should appreciate 
conscientiousness in the reader, and be glad to have 



32 PENS AND TYPES. 

all doubts settled before his work reaches the eyes of 
reviewers. 

That Dr. Johnson was guilty of harshness toward 
a proof-reader is not to be wondered at ; but it is a 
matter of wonder that his conduct appears to have 
been approved by other editors. In J. T. Bucking- 
ham's edition of Shakspeare (1814) is, at page 915, 
a remarkable note, apologizing for a few "trifling 
errors/' and adopting as an excuse a quotation from 
an advertisement "from the first edition of Reed, 
1793": 

He, whose business it is to offer this unusual apology, very 
well remembers to have been sitting with Dr. Johnson, when 
an agent from a neighboring press brought in a proof sheet of 
a republication, requesting to know whether a particular word 
in it was not corrupted. "So far from it, sir," (replied the 
Doctor with some harshness,) " that the word you suspect, and 
would displace, is conspicuously beautiful where it stands, and 
is the only one that could do the duty expected from it by Mr. 
Pope." 

Dr. Johnson's assumption that the agent would 
displace the word, seems to have been wholly gratui- 
tous. The employees of the neighboring press did 
precisely what they should have done, — what every 
conscientious proof-reader often feels obliged to do. 
If suspected words were passed without questioning, 
there would be many errors of the press which would 
justify some show of "harshness" toward the neg- 
lectful "agent." 



CHAPTER II. 

PROOF-READING. 

So long as authors the most accomplished are liable 
to err, so long as compositors the most careful make 
occasional mistakes, so long as dictionaries authorize 
various spellings, just so long must there be individ- 
uals trained and training to detect errors, to rectify 
mistakes, and to decide upon and settle all points 
which lexicographers leave in doubt. Such individ- 
uals are known as Proof-readers. 

Movable types, after having been used in printing 
newspaper or book, etc., are distributed to their 
several compartments (boxes) for future use. In 
distributing, the compositor, holding several lines in 
his left hand, takes from the top line, between the 
thumb and forefinger of his right hand, as many 
words or letters as he can conveniently manipulate, 
and moving his hand over the case drops each letter 
into its proper box. Suppose, for instance, he takes 
up the word u feasible " ; he carries his hand to the 
44 f " box, and drops off the first letter ; of course he 
knows, without looking at the word again, that he 
is next to drop off the " e " — and so, very quickly, 
his hand glides from box to box, each receiving its 
proper letter. This process is repeated until the 

33 



84 PENS AND TYPES. 

types which composed the form are all, apparently, 
returned to the compartments whence they were 
taken. 

Suppose, however, that when ready to distribute 
44 feasible," his attention is drawn momentarily to a 
neighbor who desires his opinion as to a blotted word 
in his take, and that, on returning to his work of dis- 
tributing, he imagines, or seems to remember, that 
the word in hand is 44 fencible," — the 44 a " goes into 
the "n" box, and the 44 s" finds itself at "c." By 
and by, in setting type from this same case, the com- 
positor picks up the letters for " emancipate." If he 
happens to take up the two wrong letters consecu- 
tively from the right boxes, his proof -sheet — unless 
he reads and corrects the matter in his stick — will 
present the word 44 emaasipate" — which the proof- 
reader will mark, for the compositor to correct. 

Or it may happen in distributing, that the 44 f " and 
44 e " cohere, and are both dropped into the 44 f " box. 
If the compositor's mind is not intent on the matter 
in hand, the error may not be noticed at once ; in 
which case the 44 a " gets into the 44 e " box, and some 
or all the other letters of the word go wrong. The 
error must be discovered when the last letter is 
reached ; but to search for each misplaced type until 
it is found, would probably take more time than 
would be required to correct the errors which must 
otherwise appear in the proof. 

But it is not in distributing only, that blunders 
occur. There are many other sources of error, and 
will be so long as present methods continue in vogue. 



PROOF-READING. 35 

The only wonder is, that so few errors escape detec- 
tion before the printer's work is handed over to the 
reading public. We have by us an octavo Shak- 
speare, each page of type from which it was printed, 
having contained, as can be demonstrated, over six 
thousand pieces of metal, the misplacing of any one 
of which would have caused a blunder. 

But the detection and marking of wrong letters 
forms a comparatively small part of a proof-reader's 
duty. He must be able to tell at sight whether a 
lead is too thick or too thin, and to discriminate 
between a three-em space and a four-em space. 
Many other important matters fall within his prov- 
ince, — and these we shall endeavor to point out 
before closing the present chapter. 

Other things being equal, printers make the best 
proof-readers. We have known two or three remark- 
ably skillful readers, whose work could not be sur- 
passed, who never imposed a form, nor set a line of 
type. These, however, were rare exceptions. 

A practical printer who never heard of the 
digamma, and who has never read anything but 
newspapers, will generally make a better proof- 
reader than an educated man who is not practically 
acquainted' with the typographic art; for the printer 
has, year in and year out, had a daily drill which 
makes him skillful in orthography, and he has been 
compelled to give close attention to the grammatical 
points. Further, his dealing with individual types 
enables him to see, without searching, errors which 
men far more learned than he, do not readily per- 



36 PENS AND TYPES. 

ceive ; and his pen pounces on a wrong letter as 
instinctively and unerringly as the bird darts on its 
insect prey. 

Sterne has uttered a sneer at the husk and shell of 
learning; but the best bread is made from the whole 
meal, and includes the " shorts " and the "middlings " 
as well as the fine flour. If every lawyer, physician, 
and clergyman were to spend six months at the 
u case" before entering upon his profession, he 
would find, even in that short term of labor, a 
useful fitting and preparation for such literary tasks 
as may afterward devolve upon him. 

Nearly all manuscript copy is indebted to the com- 
positor and proof-reader for the proper punctuation ; 
and many errors in spelling, made by men who prob- 
ably know better, but write hastily, are silently cor- 
rected in the printing-office. Contradictions, errors 
of fact, anachronisms, imperfect sentences, solecisms, 
barbarisms, are modestly pointed out to the author 
by the proof-reader's "quaere," or by a carefully 
worded suggestion ; and, most usually, the proof is 
returned without comment, — and none is needed, — 
corrected according to the proof-reader's intimations. 
Dickens, and a few other writers of eminence, have 
acknowledged their indebtedness in such 'cases ; but 
we know one proof-reader — whose experience em- 
braces an infinite variety of subjects from bill-heads 
to Bibles — who can remember but three cases in 
which his assistance, whether valuable or otherwise, 
was alluded to in a kindly manner. On the other 
hand, the correction in the proof is sometimes ac- 



PROOF-READING. 37 

companied by some testy remark ; as, " Does this suit 
you?" or, "Will it do now?" The proof-reader is, 
however, or shoul4 be, perfectly callous to all cap- 
tious criticisms and foolish comments ; he need care 
nothing for " harshness " or other nonsense, provided 
his work is well and thoroughly done. Let no nerv- 
ous or touchy man meddle with proof-reading. 

For the especial benefit of our non-professional 
readers, we will here point out the usual routine in 
regard to proofs. The editor or publisher of a book 
or periodical sends to the printer such portions of 
reading-matter or manuscript as he can, from time to 
time, conveniently supply. This copy is passed to a 
head-workman, who divides it into a number of parts, 
called u takes," each part being a suitable quantity 
for a compositor to take at one time ; and the name 
of each compositor is penciled at the top of his take. 
The type when set up is called u matter." 

When there is enough matter to fill a "galley" 
(a metallic or wooden casing about two feet in 
length), an impression, or "proof," is taken on a 
strip of paper wide enough to receive in the margin 
the correction of such errors as may be found. This 
proof, with the corresponding copy, is carried to the 
proof-reader's desk for examination and correction. 

The reader will have at hand a copy of such direc- 
tions as may have been furnished by author, editor, 
or publisher, to which he appends, from time to time, 
memoranda of all eccentricities of orthography and 
capitalization, — in short, all peculiarities of style, as 
they arise. This he consults frequently while rear 1 - 



88 PENS AND TYPES. 

ing the proof-sheet, and, for obvious reasons, with 
especial attention after any unusual delay in the 
progress of the work. Directions and notes as to 
captions, sizes of type, form of tables, etc., are of 
utility, especially when several readers are employed 
on the same publication ; but directions can scarcely 
be framed so as to ensure l uniformity, except in few 
particulars. We subjoin two or three samples of direc- 
tions and memoranda : our remarks in brackets. 

MEMORANDA FOR PROOF-READERS. 

The form is regular octavo. 

Text is long primer, single leaded. 

Tables and lists, having rules and boxheads, nonpareil solid. 

Headings of tables and lists, brevier italic, lower case. 

There are no numbered chapters. The heading of each sec- 
tion, which takes the place of chapter heading, is pica light- 
face Celtic caps, spaced. 

Geological ages and epochs are capitalized ; for example, 
"Devonian," "Trias," " sub-Carboniferous " v. [page 176.J 

Quoted extracts in regular text type (long primer), between 
quotation marks. 

Capitalize " the West," " the South," etc., but not "western 
New York," " central Pennsylvania," etc. 

Do not use " &c." for " etc." 

" Prof.," " Gen.," etc., preceding initials or Christian name; 
" Professor," "General," etc., when last name alone is used; 
for example, " Prof. J. Smith," " General Grant," etc. 

Full point after roman numerals. 

" Saint Louis," etc. ; spell out " Saint." 

Names of periodicals, in italics. 

Names of books, roman, in quotation marks. 

" Panther creek " ; but " Panther Creek district." That is, 
capitalize titles. 

1 Vide page 170, on the orthography of this word. 



PROOF-READING. 89 

The following sample relates to an octavo on 
Fishes : 

Make •* cod fishery" two words. 

*' Offshore," *' Inshore" [no hyphen]. 

"Sheepshead" [name of fish. Webster inserts an apos- 
trophe and a hyphen, — '* Sheep's-head "] . 

" Herring fisheries " [no hyphen] . 

" Herring-nets " [insert hyphen] . 

From a quarto on Fishes : 
•• Cod-fisherman" [hyphen], 
" Cod fishery " [two words] . 

Engineer work : 

Make footnotes of the ''Remarks" column. 

For " D. D." in copy, spell " dry-dock." 

Use figures in all cases, for weights, distances, etc. 

The following was for a Digest — Decisions : 

Spell " travelling," •• employee," and divide " ser-vice." 
[" Travelling " and ** ser-vice " are Worcester style. Webster 
divides *' serv-ice." — In regard to ** employee," neither Web- 
ster nor Worcester gives it place; but, instead, the French 
"employe." Webster has this note following the French 
word: "The English form of this word, viz., employee, 
though perfectly conformable to analogy, and therefore per- 
fectly legitimate, is not sanctioned by the usage of good 
writers." Since Webster's note was written, some good 
writers, as in the book of Decisions above mentioned, have 
used the English word, as many printing-office employees can 
testify, — and " employ >6 " may as well be sent home, according 
to the immigration laws, as unable to sustain itself in this 
country. 1 ] 

Weather Reports : 

The " upper Missouri valley" [small v~\. 

The "Mississippi river" [small r]. 

1 Since the above remark was written, we have found " employee " 
admitted as a correct English word, in Worcester's " Supplement." 



40 PENS AND TYPES. 

Geological Survey : 

The " Missouri Valley " [cap. F]. 
The "Missouri River" [cap. B], 

The proof-reader knows, that (as we have already 
remarked) every printing-office has a style of its 
own ; that, if left to itself, its style would be practi- 
cally uniform and always respectable, — and he soon 
learns that some writers for the press have very firm 
opinions about matters of little or no consequence, 
and are very tenacious, if not pugnacious, in prefer- 
ring tweedledee to tweedledum ; not because it is writ- 
ten with more e's, but because it is more correct — in 
their opinion. However great may be a reader's 
capacity for memorizing trifling details, it is next to 
impossible to keep minute verbal differences on dif- 
ferent mental shelves. After the big book is bound, 
one will be likely to find a mingling of styles ; the 
big River of one page becomes a little river on the 
next; "Pittsburg" here, reads "Pittsburgh" there; 
and the dignified "National Park" of the first chapter 
will dwindle to a mere " national park " in chapter 
the twelfth. 

If not hurried by a press of work, as may some- 
times be the case, the reader will first glance at the 
proof as a whole. A variation in the thickness of 
the leads, or a wrong indention, will, in this tout- 
ensemble survey, very quickly catch his eye. Then, 
still supposing he has time, he will read the galley 
through silently, correcting errors in spelling ; mark- 
ing turned or inverted letters; improving the spa- 



PROOF-READING. 41 

cing, the punctuation ; noting whether the heads and 
subheads are in the required type; whether the 
capitalization is uniform; whether — if the "slip" 
beneath his eye happen to be near the end of a 
large volume — the word " ourang-outang " which 
he now meets with, was not printed somewhere in 
the earlier part of the work as " orang-outang," or, in 
fact, whether, after some questioning, it finally went 
to press as " orang-utan," — which word he must 
now, to preserve uniformity, hunt for and find among 
his old proofs, if, peradventure, author or publisher, 
or other person, have not borrowed them " for a few 
minutes," — alas ! never to be returned. 

Having settled this, and all similar cases and other 
doubtful matters, he hands the copy to an assistant, 
called a " copy-holder," whose duty it is to read the 
copy aloud, while he himself keeps his eye on the 
print (but in newspaper offices, for the sake of 
greater celerity, the proof-reader often reads aloud, 
while the copy-holder follows him silently, intent on 
the copy: interrupting, however, whenever any dis- 
crepancy is observed). If the reader desire the copy- 
holder to pause while he makes a correction, he re- 
peats the word where he wishes the reading to stop ; 
when ready to proceed he again pronounces the same 
word, and the copy-holder reads on from that place. 

The manner of marking, in the text, all errors 
noticed, is shown, infra, in the "Specimen of First 
Proof." The corrections to be made are indicated, 
in the margin, by appropriate words or characters 
from " Marks used in correcting Proofs " — also 



42 PENS AND TYPES. 

inserted below. Writers for the press who them- 
selves examine proof-sheets of their works, should 
familiarize themselves with proof-reading technics. 
An author who received for the first time some 
proof-sheets returned them "clean" — apparently hav- 
ing detected no errors. He was afterward disgusted 
on finding it necessary to print a leaf of " errata," 
and complained that his corrections had been entirely 
disregarded. On re-examining the proofs he had 
returned, it was found that he had corrected — with 
knife as well as pen. Where a comma was wanting, 
he had used the pen, carefully and skillfully imitat- 
ing the printed character ; and to convert semicolons 
into commas he had brought the knife into play, — 
nicely scratching out the superfluous part of the point. 
Sometimes a line, or it may be several lines, of 
type are by some mishap out of perpendicular — 
slanting; so that only one side of each letter-face 
shows a full impression on the proof. It is usual 
in such case to draw several slanting marks across 
the faulty line or lines, and make similar marks in 
the margin. It is quite common, also, for readers to 
insert in the margin the words "off its feet," — that 
being the printing-office designation for sloping mat- 
ter. One reader abandoned writing these words, for 
two reasons : the first, that a compositor, when cor- 
recting, inserted them in the text, making an aston- 
ishing sentence ; the second, that the marked passage, 
— a piece of close, logical reasoning, — after being 
carefully scanned by the author, was brought to the 
reader, with a very earnest request that he would 



PROOF-READING. 43 

point out what justice there was in that bluff remark. 
It is enough to draw what beginners in writing call 
"straight marks" across the matter, and also in the 
margin. We append other — 

MARKS USED IN CORRECTING PROOFS. 

|""| Insert an em-quadrat. 

C^-~ Dele, take oat ; expunge. 

*jjf Insert space. 

*—^ Less space. 

^^ Close up entirely. 

Ck*» yfc Dele some type, and insert a space in lieu of what is re- 
* 0^ moved. , 

^"* ^^ Dele some type, and close up. 

X Broken or battered type. 

J, Plane down a letter. Push down a space or quadrat. 

.... Placed under erased words, restores them. 

^%2t Written in the margin, restores a canceled word or passage, 
or such portions of erased text as have dots under them. 

^[ Begin paragraph. 

C orL Remove to left. 

D or J Remove to right. 

|— I Carry higher up on page. 

L— _j Carry down. 

=== Four lines subscript, denote italic capitals. 

= Three lines subscript, denote capitals. 

= Two lines subscript, denote small capitals. 
One line subscript, denotes italics. 

w. /. Wrong font. 

it. Transpose. C?\ Period. C^ Colon. 

y/ Apostrophe. =/ Hyphen. -/ En-dash. |— | Em-dash. 
If there is an omission (an " out ") make a caret at the place of the out, and 
If the out is short, write the omitted word or words in margin ; if long, write 
in margin " out — see copy," and pin to the proof the sheet of copy containing 
the omitted portion. 

/. c. Lower-case. *. c. Small capitals. 

£2u. or £&u. or ? calls attention to some doubtful word or sentence. 
Several other marks are used, which need no explanation. 



44 PENS AND TYPES. 

In order to show our readers the practical applica- 
tion of the above marks, we will suppose the following 
paragraph from Guizot to be put in type abounding 
in errors, and will then exhibit the corrections as 
made by the proof-reader : 

SPECIMEN OF FIRST PROOF. 

We can imagine how up to a certain point, 
a uuen, whatever ill may result from it, may 
give np the direction of his temporal affairs 
to a noutward authority. 

We can conceive a notion of that philoso- 
pher who when one told him that his was on 
fire, said," go and tell my wife; I never medd- 
le with house-hold affairs " But when our 
conscience, our thoughts, and intellectual ex- 
istence are at stake — to give up tho gover- 
ment of one's-self, to deliver over one^s very 
soul to the authority of a stranger, is indeed 
al suicide; is indeed 1000 times worse 
than bodily servitude— to than become a 
Mere appurtenance of the soil. Guizot. 

may be found on pp. 172 — 175. 

The above is very bad, even for a first proof, — 
but we have seen worse, and have, perhaps, ourself 
been responsible for some not much better. While 
the copy-holder is reading aloud the copy from which 



PROOF-READING. 45 

the above was set up, the reader is busy marking 
errors, and making such characters in the margin as 
will inform the compositors what is to be done to 
make their work correct. At the conclusion of the 
reading, the proof will present an appearance some- 
what like this corrected — 

SPECIMEN Or FIR8T PROOF. 

f"| A We can imagine how up to a certain point, *. *. I ,J 

, whatever ill may result from it, may fnan 

fcp the direction of his temporal affairs Cw * * 

w to a^noutward authority. sjf 

* * A j yr 

to (*ea*> ^e can conceive a notion of thatSphiloso- j£" 
^ WK * ^pher who when one told him that his was on 4ouss 
C. ' Are, said, •* go and tell my wife; I never medd- 
*> Te) with household affairs^ [But when our ^-2/ O / H 
*tet conscience,-*** though t8,-a«4- intellectual ex- ou% 
tiaf. istence are at stake — to give up the gover- el n I 
^-" if: ment of one'sfself, to deliver over onejs very O 
'"— •» soul to the^^authority ofa stranger, is indeed ffi X 

T"guici3eT~i 8 indeed 4699- times worse a Inotttand 

^ ■^S = ^ r - de -^ / ^ become a *•/"•/ 



uj give *P 



apPBl 




^Jce of the soU. Guizot. 3 /* 



» may he found on pp. 172-4-175. - / 



If the proof in hand be a reprint, and the new edi- 
tion is to conform to the old, the copy-holder, while 
reading, pronounces aloud the points, capitals, etc., 



46 PENS AND TYPES. 

as they occur in the copy — saving labor and time by 
using well-understood abbreviations. Take, for in- 
stance, the second stanza of Tennyson's " Voyage " : 

44 Warm broke the breeze against the brow, 

Dry sang the tackle, sang the sail : 
The Lady's-head upon the prow 

Caught the shrill salt, and sheer'd the gale. 
The broad seas swell'd to meet the keel, 

And swept behind : so quick the run, 
We felt the good ship shake and reel, 

We seem'd to sail into the Sun ! " 

This stanza the copy-holder reads thus : 

Quote '* Warm broke the breeze against the brow, (com.} 

Diy sang the tackle, (com.) sang the sail : (colon.) 
The Lady's-( cap. pos. s, hyphen.)hesid upon the prow 

Caught the shrill salt, (com.) and sheer'( pos.)& the gale. 
(full point.) 
The broad seas sweir(po.9.)d to meet the keel, (com.) 

And swept behind : (colon.) so quick the run, (com.) 
We felt the good ship shake and reel, (com.) 

We seem' (pos.) d to sail into the Sun ! " (cap. exclam. close of 
quote.) 

If the work extend beyond a single galley, the 
slips of proof are marked in regular sequence, A, B, 
C, etc., or 1, 2, 3, etc. Each slip is marked at top 
" First Proof " : the names of the compositors, which 
have been inscribed on their " takes," are duly trans- 
ferred to the printed proof, which, with the errors 
plainly noted thereon, is then given for correction to 
the same persons who set up the matter. Their duty 
having been attended to, a "second proof" is taken: 



PROOF-READING. 47 

this the reader compares carefully with the first, to 
ascertain whether the requisite changes of type have 
been properly made ; whether " doublets " have been 
taken out, and "outs" put in. If any mark has 
escaped the notice of the compositors, it is trans- 
ferred to the second proof. Close attention should 
be given to this process of " revising " ; it is not 
enough to see that a wrong letter has been taken out, 
and a right one put in ; in the line where a change 
las been made, all the words should be compared, 
and also the line above and the line below a correc- 
tion, — since in correcting an error among movable 
fypes, some of the types may move when they ought 
not, and get misplaced. 

As what escapes the notice of one observer may 
be perceived by another, this second proof is again 
"read by copy" by another proof-reader and assist- 
ant, and a second time corrected and revised. The 
" third proof " is now sent to the author, editor, or 
publisher, with so much copy as may cover it, the 
copy-holder being careful, however, to retain the 
"mark-off"; i. e., the sheet on which is marked off 
the place where the next " first proof " is to begin. 
But when the work is of such sort as not to require 
extraordinary care, the second proof is sent out, a 
single reading by copy being deemed sufficient. If 
the work is read twice by copy, only one reader 
should attend to the punctuation. 

If, now, the copy have been hastily or carelessly 
prepared, or if the author have gained new light 
since he prepared it, the outside party having charge 



48 PENS AND TYPES. 

of the work (whom, for convenience, we will desig- 
nate as the " author ") will return his proofs, full of 
erasures, additions, alterations, interlineations, and 
transpositions. With these the original composi- 
tors have no concern ; the changes required are made 
by "the office," and the time is charged to the person 
who contracted for the printing of the work. 

A second, third, or even more consecutive revises 
of the same slip are sometimes sent to the author, to 
the intent that he may see for himself that his correc- 
tions have been duly made, and to allow him further 
opportunity to introduce such alterations as to him 
may seem desirable. Usually, however, the work, 
after the correction of the author's first proof, is 
made up into pages; and when there are enough 
of these for a " signature " or form of octavo, duo- 
decimo, or whatever the number of pages on the 
sheet may be, the proof-reader revises these pages 
by the author's latest returned proof, cuts off the 
slip at the line where the last page ends, and sends 
the folded leaves, labeled " Second," " Third," or 
" Fourth " proof, as the case may be, together with 
the corresponding slips of the next previous proof, to 
the author, as before. The portion of slip proof 
remaining — termed the " make-up" — should be 
inscribed with the proper page, and the letter or 
figure which is to be the signature of the next sheet, 
and given, for his guidance, to the person who makes 
up the work; to be returned again to the proof- 
reader, with the other slip proofs of the next sheet 
of made-up pages, when that is ready for revision. 



PROOF-READING. 49 

The author may be desirous of seeing a fifth, sixth, 
or, as the algebraists say, any number, n, of proofs. 
When he expresses himself as satisfied with his share 
of the correcting, the last author's proof is corrected, 
a " revise " taken, and the proof-reader gives this last 
revise a final reading for the press. As any errors 
which escape detection now, will show themselves in 
the book, this last reading should be careful, deliber- 
ate, and painstaking. See to it, my young beginner, 
that the " signature " is the letter or number next in 
sequence to that on your previous press-proof. See 
to it, that the first page of the sheet in hand connects 
in reading with the last page of the previous one, 
and that the figures denoting the page form the next 
cardinal number to that which you last sent to press. 
Having done this, examine the "folios" (the "pagi- 
nation," as some say) throughout ; read the running 
titles ; if there be a new chapter commenced, look 
back in your previous proofs to make sure that said 
new chapter is "xix.," and not "xviii."; see that 
the head-lines of the chapter are of the right size, 
and in the right font of type ; for, if the " minion " 
case happened to be covered up, the compositor may 
have forgotten himself, and set them up in "bre- 
vier"; if th^re is rule-work, see that the rules come 
together properly, and are right side up ; if there is 
Federal money, see that the " $ " is put at the begin- 
ning of the number following a rule, 1 and of the 
number in the top line of every page ; if points are 

i In the Government Printing Office the style omits the " $ " in 
this case, — the sign at top of table or page being considered sufficient. 



50 PENS AND TYPES. 

used as " leaders," see that there are no commas or 
hyphens among them. If the style require a comma 
before leaders, see that none have been left out ; if 
the style reject a comma, see that none have been 
left in; in short, see to everything, — and then, on 
the corner of the sheet, write the word " Press " as 
boldly as you can, but with the moral certainty that 
some skulking blunder of author, compositor, or cor- 
rector has eluded all your watchfulness. 

The errors made by ourselves are those which 
occasion us the most pain. Therefore be chary of 
changing anything in the author's last proof. If a 
sentence seem obscure, see whether the insertion of 
a comma will make it clear. If you find " patonce," 
do not change it to "potence," unless, from your 
knowledge of heraldry, you are aware of a good 
reason for such an alteration. If you find pro. ami, 
look in the dictionary before striking out the point 
after pro. ; peradventure it is a contraction. If, 
finally, after puzzling over some intricate sentence, 
you can make nothing of it, let it console you 
that the following paragraph appears in Havernick : 
"Accordingly it is only from this passage that a con- 
clusion can be drawn as to the historical condition 
of the people, which is confirmed also by notices else- 
where " ; and let it content you to say, in the words 
of Colenso, " I am at a loss to understand the mean- 
ing of the above paragraph." So let the obscure 
passage remain. 

Still, however, should you find some gross error of 
dates, some obvious solecism, or some wrong footing 



PROOF-READING. 51 

in a column of figures, and find yourself unable to 
change the reading with absolute certainty of being 
right, this proof, which you had hoped would be a final 
one, must be returned to the author with the proper 
quaere. When it comes back to your sanctum, you 
may perhaps be pleased at finding on the margin a few 
words complimentary of your carefulness ; or perhaps a 
question couched in this encomiastic style: "Why 
did not your stupid proof-reader find this out before ? " 
Whether reading first or final proofs of Records of 
Court, you should not change the spelling of words, 
nor supply omissions, nor strike out a repeated word 
or words ; for the printed record is assumed to be an 
exact transcript of what is written, and there should 
be no alterations, — neither uniformity nor correct- 
ness is to be sought at the expense of departing from 
copy. Inserting the necessary points where these 
have been neglected, is not considered a change of 
the record, — as, for instance, an interrogation point 
after a direct question to a witness; for, as "the 
punctuation is no part of the law," a fortiori it is no 
part of the record. If the caption be " Deposition 
of John Prat," and the signature be " John Pratt," 
and if in another place you find the same individual 
designated as " John Pradt," there is no help for it. 
You have no authority to alter the record, and must 
print it as it stands. So, too, in regard to dates. If 
you. read "1st Feb. 1889" on one page, "Feb. 1, 
1889 " on another, so let them stand — the change of 
style is a trifle ; and, if it be a fault, it is the fault 
of the record, and not yours. 



52 PENS AND TYPES. 

And here let us say a word about this matter of 
uniformity : very important in some works, in others 
it is of no consequence whatever, however much some 
readers may stickle for it. If, for example, a mass of 
letters, from all parts of the country, recommending 
a patent inkstand, or stating the prospects of the 
potato crop, are sent in to be printed, the dates and 
addresses will vary in style, according to the taste 
and knowledge of the several writers ; and there is 
not the slightest need of changing them to make 
them alike, as if all these widely scattered writers 
had graduated from the same school. Let such writ- 
ings be printed as diversely as they come to hand. 
If one writes plough, and another plow, what matters 
it, so far as your proof-reading is concerned ? If one 
writes "15th June," and another "June 15" or 
"June 15th," so let it stand on the printed page. It 
is idle to waste time in making things alike, that 
could not by any possibility have been written alike. 
But you can make each letter consistent with itself, 
which is all that uniformity requires. You need not 
stretch one man out, and cut off the feet of another, 
to justify all authors in your composing-stick, So 
much for exceptional cases. 

As a general rule, study to preserve uniformity in 
every work. If "A. M." and "P. M." are in capi- 
tals on one page, it will look very like carelessness 
to have them appear "a.m." and "p.m." in small 
capitals, on the next. With the exceptions above 
pointed out, your only safety is to have but one style, 
and to adhere to it with the stiffness of a martinet, 



PROOF-READING. 53 

in all contingencies, unless overruled by those who 
have a right to dictate in the premises. 

READING GREEK. 

Greek words sometimes appear in copy, and are 
somewhat vexatious to printers who never had the 
good fortune to study Greek at school — or else- 
where. In a proofnsheet, we once met a word whose 
etymology was given thus in the copy : " From c 'Eliog 
the sun, and <pik>s a lover" (the epsilon was the 
author's mistake). The compositor, not aware of a 
Greek alphabet, set up the passage in those English 
letters which most nearly resemble the Hellenic 
characters, and it appeared in this guise: "From 
Ediog the sun, and pidog a lover." We advise 
proof-readers, and compositors and copy-holders as 
well, to acquire — if they do not already possess — 
so much knowledge of Greek letters and characters 
as will enable them to acquit themselves without 
discredit, though " Ediog" and "pidog" condog 
(y. Wb.) to annoy them. A few hours' attention to 
the alphabet and characters given below, and to the 
annexed practical directions, will suffice to fix in the 
memory as much knowledge of Greek as will serve 
for the mechanical following of the copy, — mechani- 
cal following, — for, if you are setting up or reading 
a reprint of the 450th page of Webster's Dictionary, 
and meet with the word twEviixovia, you must put in 
the eleven letters as they stand? and if copying 
Worcester's 486th page, you find iwetyovxa, put in 



54 PENS AND TYPES. 

the ten letters. If you have any doubts, submit 
your query. 

The Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters. 



Alpha 


A a 


a 


Beta 


B ? 


b 


Gamma 


r y 


g 


Delta 


4 d 


d 


Epsilon 


E 8 


6 


Zeta 


z c 


z 


Eta 


H * 


e 


Theta 


e & e 


th 


Iota 


i i 


i 


Kappa 


K x 


k 


Lambda 


A I 


1 


Mu 


M fi 


m 


Nil 


N v 


n 


Xi 


£ g 


X 


Omicron 


o 


6 


Pi 


n n 


P 


Rho 


P Q p 


r 


Sigma 


2 a, final g 


s 


Tau 


T T 


t 


Upsilon 


Y v 


u 


Phi 


4> q> 


ph 


Chi 


X X 


ch 


Psi 


W iff 


ps 


Omega 


SI en 


5 



In reading Greek, mention each letter by its Eng- 
lish equivalent. 

E is read, " cap. short e " ; c, " short e " ; H is read, 
" cap. long e " ; v, " long e." 

O is read, " cap. short o " ; o, " short o " ; n is read, 
" cap. long o " ; w, " long o." 



PROOF-READING. 55 

There are three accents, — the acute (•), the grave 
0)i and the circumflex (*). 

<) is read, "acute u" ; i is read, "grave i" ; « is 
read, "circumflex a." 

Over every vowel or diphthong beginning a word 
is placed one of two characters, called breathings, 
which, for the purpose of reading, we may designate 
as the smooth (*) and the rough ( r )« 

d is read, " smooth a " ; I is read, " rough i." 

When two marks appear over a letter, both should 
be mentioned by the copy-holder. 

* is read, " smooth, acute u " ; o is read, " rough, 
acute, short o " ; 8, " rough, grave, short o " ; S, " cir- 
cumflex, smooth, long o." 

The compositor and proof-reader should be careful 
that accented letters are used according to the copy, 
as in many cases the difference of accentuation serves 
also to mark the difference of signification. Thus, 
riog signifies new ; vebg, a field : fap, a violet ; lbv } going, 
a, % «, are diphthongs ; their second vowel (*), being 
silent, is placed underneath, or subscribed. These 
should be read thus: ?, "a, subscript"; 17, "long e, 
subscript " ; en, " long o, subscript." 

In Greek, only four points or stops are used : the 
comma (,) ; the note of interrogation (;) ; the colon, 
or point at top (•); and the full stop (.). These 
should be mentioned as they occur. 



56 PENS AND TYPES. 

EXAMPLE FOR READING. 

EPIGRAM ON THEMISTOCLES. 

% Avil i&q>ov Xuolo &kg l EXX&da, &£g d' im rafaav 
dovQaia, (faQptxQixixs ov/LtftoXa vuvy&oyiag, 

Kal rvfifiy XQijnlda neqiyqacpe rifgaixuv H Jqr\ 
Kal Aiq^rjv wvwig -frdnie QefiiuioxXia. 

SiaXa #' (i ZaXa/ulg imxetoeiou, fyyu Xiyovua 
T&ftfr U fie afilxQoCg i6v (iiyav ivilideis; 

The method of reading will, we think, be suffi- 
ciently exemplified if we give but one line. We 
select the third, which should be read by the copy- 
holder, as follows: 

Cap. K, a, grave i ; t, acute u, m, b, long o sub- 
script ; k, r, long e, p, circumflex i, d, a ; p, short e, 
r, acute i, g, r, a, ph, short e ; cap. P, short e, r, s, i, 
k, grave short o, n; cap. smooth acute A, r, long e. 

Words from dead and foreign languages, introduced 
into English text, are printed in italics, until, being 
frequently met, they cease to be strangers; then 
printers and proof-readers anglicify them as much 
as possible, by printing them in roman; but some 
of these retain certain accents which indicate their 
alien origin. The Spanish cafion is completely angli- 
cized into " canyon " (p as in no) ; our miners write 
44 arrastra " in roman, although the term has not yet 
found its way into our most popular dictionaries ; our 
dreadful accident-makers have set afloat so many 
44 canards," that that word has become better Eng- 
lish than French ; 44 papier-mache " usually appears 
in roman without the accent on the final e ; employ 6 



PROOF-READING. 57 

has become a good " employee " in our workshops ; 
and at an early day, every "prot£g6" and "prot£g6e," 
already roman, will throw off the foreign accents, and 
remain none the less acute "protegees"; "6clat," 
44 regime," and "r£sum6 " still cling to their acute e'a. 
Many words and phrases are hesitating whether to 
remain foreigners, or to become naturalized. They. 
have " taken out their first papers," as it were, hav- 
ing at times appeared in English garb. 

It would be vastly convenient for every compositor 
and proof-reader (every author, of course, reads proof) 
to have at hand two lists of such Latin and foreign 
words as most frequently occur in books, magazines, 
and newspapers, — the one containing the words to 
be set up in italics, the other, words to "go in 
roman," as the phrase is. We append two such 
lists, as samples rather than as fixities to be fol- 
lowed, although they represent very nearly, if not 
exactly, the present status of the class of words we 
are considering. The roman list is destined to be 
continually lengthening, while the italic, save as it 
receives new accretions from foreign sources, must 
)be correspondingly diminishing. 

WORDS TO GO IN ITALICS. 



ante 


artiste 


de bonis non 


ad captandum 


avant coureur 


defacto 


ad libitum 


beau monde 


dejure 


ad quod damnum 


coram nonjudice 


del credere 


aliunde 


corpus delicti 


de novo 


alma mater 


coup d'etat 


dilettante 


amende honorable 


coup de grace 


dilettanti 


amicus curice 


coup de main 


dramatis personal 



58 



PENS AND TYPES. 



duces tecum 


inter alia 


pro forma 


en route 


in toto 


projet 


entree 


in transitu 


pro tempore 


et al. 


juste milieu 


rationale 


ex officio 


malum in se 


res adjudicata 


ex parte 


malum prohibitum 


sans-culotte 


ex post facto 


materiel 


sine die 


ex rel. 


nem. con. 


soi disant 


falsi crimen 


nHmporte 


8otto voce 


feme covert 


non constat 


subjudice 


feme sole 


non obstante 


supra 


femme couverte 


nous verrons 


tabula rasa 


femme sole 


passim 


terra incognita 


fleur de lis 


peculium 


tout ensemble 


functus officio 


personnel 


ultima ratio 


garcon 


postea 


ultima Thule 


iynesfatui 


postliminium 


vide 


ignis fatuus 


post mortem 


vice versa 


in extenso 


prima facie 


viva voce 


infra 


proces-verbal 


vraisemblance 


in statu quo 






WORDS 


TO GO IN ROMAN. 


addenda 


debris 


mandamus 


addendum 


dedimus 


menu 


ad interim 


de*tour 


mittimus 


ad valorem 


devoir 


nisi prius 


alias 


diluvion 


nolle prosequi 


alibi 


diluvium 


oyer and terminer 


alumnus 


e*clat 


papier-mache 


alumnae 


emeute 


per capita 


alumni 


ennui 


per diem 


animus 


entrepot 


posse comitatus 


assumpsit 


exequatur 


pro rata 


bagatelle 


exuvi® 


protege" 


belles-lettres 


fasces 


quasi 


bijou 


faubourg 


regime 


billet-doux 


feuilleton 


resume* 


bivouac 


fiacre 


role 


bizarre 


fieri facias 


savant 


bona fide 


habeas corpus 


seriatim 


canaille 


hacienda 


sobriquet 


canard 


hauteur 


status 


capias 


in banc 


supersedeas 


charge* d' affaires 


in situ 


via 


coterie 


literati 


venire 


crevasse 


literatim 


venire facias 


data 


Magna Charta 


verbatim 


datum 







CHAPTER III. 

STYLE. 

Before beginning to read proof, a man usually 
prepares himself by learning how to make the tech- 
nical marks used in correcting; he then reads a 
chapter on the use of capitals ; takes up a grammar, 
and reviews the rules of punctuation ; and by read- 
ing, and conversing with readers, gets such helps as 
give him a good degree of confidence. But at the 
very threshold of his duties he is met by a little 
"dwarfish demon" called "Style," who addresses 
him somewhat after this fashion: "As you see me 
now, so I have appeared ever since the first type was 
set in this office. Everything here must be done as 
I say. You may mark as you please, but don't vio- 
late the commands of Style. I may seem to disap- 
pear for a time, when there is a great rush of work, 
and you may perhaps bring yourself to believe that 
Style is dead. But do not deceive yourself, — Style 
never dies. When everything is going merrily, and 
you are rejoicing at carrying out some pet plan of 
your own, you will find me back again, tearing the 
forms to pieces, and again asserting my irrevocable 
authority. Stick to my orders, and all will be well. 
Don't tell me of grammarians or lexicographers; 
say nothing of better ways, or improvements or 

59 



60 PENS AND TYPES. 

progress. I am Style, and my laws are like those of 
the Medes and Persians." And Style states his true 
character. 

Unfortunately for the proof-reader, Style seldom 
writes his laws ; or, if at any time written, their vis- 
ible form presently perishes, and they can only be 
got at, as one may learn the common law of England, 
through past decisions. You, my young friend, may 
in vain consult old proofs ; works formerly read, at 
the desk you now occupy, by some vanished prede- 
cessor. Your searching cannot help you much ; for 
authors being without the jurisdiction, are independ- 
ent of the authority, of Style, — they may allow 
him to dominate over their works, or they may not. 
How, then, are you to distinguish, and select as 
models, those which were read under the direct super- 
vision of Style ? In the course of a few years you 
may come to know a portion of his laws; but the 
whole code is past finding out. 

To drop the personification, every office has a style 
— an arrangement of details — peculiar to itself. In 
one, " Government " is spelled with a capital ; in a 
second, "government" is spelled with a lower-case 
"g"; in this office, the four seasons are always 
" Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter " ; in that, 
they are " spring, summer," etc., having capitals only 
when personified : and so of a thousand other cases 
in capitalization. In this office, before a quoted 
extract we put a colon and dash, thus : — while, in 
the office across the way, the style is to put a colon 
only : and, a little farther on, is an office which uses 



STYLE. 61 

only the dash — yet a fourth, round the corner, puts 
a comma and dash, thus, — while a fifth undertakes 
to use all these and even additional methods, as the 
period, the semicolon, and dash, selecting as the sense 
or convenience or caprice may dictate. 1 Here, the 
style requires a comma before awrf, in " pounds, shil- 
lings, and pence"; there, the style is "pounds, shil- 
lings and pence." "Viz," in Mr. A.'s office, is 
considered a contraction, and is printed "viz." — 
with the period ; in Mr. B.'s office, it is not a contrac- 
tion, and the period is not used ; in Mr. C.'s office, 
"viz " is put entirely under the ban, and compositors 
and proof-readers are directed to substitute for it the 
word "namely," in all cases. As regards orthogra- 
phy, two styles — the Worcester and Webster — 
have, in almost all offices, alternate sway; and — 
which complicates matters still more — everywhere 
there is an " office style." Each " rules a moment ; 
chaos umpire sits," etc. 

Suppose half-a-dozen works going through the 
press at the same time, embracing three styles of 
orthography, and four or five styles in capitalization ; 
one style which requires turned commas at the begin- 
ning only, of a quotation, and one which requires 
them at the beginning of every line of an extract, — 
you see at once that a proof-reader, so beset, must 
needs have his wits about him. For, notice, the 
first " slip " which comes to hand is in the " Life of 

1 For some varieties of style in introducing quotations, see " Ilis- 
torical Memorials of Westminster Abbey. By Arthur Penrhyn 
Stanley, D.D. London : John Murray, 1868 " ; especially pp. 266, 
267. 



62 PENS AND TYPES. 

John Smith"; this is in the Worcester style, and 
requires "traveller" and "jeweller" to be spelled 
each with two Z'«, and "impanelled" with two V s. The 
next galley-proof to be read is part of the " Life of 
James Smith " ; this is in the Webster style ; and 
now the reader must change front, and see to it that 
he spells " traveler " and " jeweler " with one I each, 
and " impaneled " with one I. Now as these works 
are in the same size of type, and are very similar in 
appearance, it would not be strange if now and then 
the styles were to " cross over " ; but, observe, the 
third slip, the "Life of William Smith," is "office 
style," requiring " traveler " to be spelled with one Z, 
and " jeweller " with two (very absurd, but all styles 
have something absurd and arbitrary in them), while 
" empanel " now repudiates an initial L Further, the 
publishers of the " Life of John " desire to have it in 
uniform style with their "watch-pocket series," in 
which names of ships were put between quotation- 
marks ; the author of the " Life of James " insists, 
that, in his work, names of ships shall not be quoted, 
and shall be set in roman ; the " Life of William," being 
in office style, requires names of ships to be in italics. 
Again, each of these works has, at the commence- 
ment of its several chapters, a cast of initial letter 
differing from the style of the other two, — the first 
a two-line plain letter, the second a black letter, the 
third an open-face letter ; and still further (there is 
no "finally"), the "Life of John" has "backwards," 
"forwards," "towards," all with the final s ; and the 
proof-reader has just received from the outside reader 



STYLE. 63 

of the " Life of James," a sharp note, stating that he 
has stricken the * from " towards," as many as ten 
times, and coolly assuring the said proof-reader that 
there is no such word as " towards " in the English 
language. Meanwhile, intermingled with the above 
readings, are four Sunday-school books, A, B, C, and 
D. A and B require the words " everything," " any- 
thing," and " cannot " to be divided respectively into 
two words, — " every thing," " any thing," " can 
not"; while C and D, with a general direction to 
follow Webster, want these words printed in the 
usual manner, — closed up. A and C must have 
two words of "'tis," "it's," "don't," "couldn't," 
"mustn't"; B and D require the same, with the 
exception of " don't," which must be made one 
word. A and D want an apostrophe in "won't"; 
while B and C insist that the change from "will 
not" is so great, that "wont" is virtually a new 
word, wherefore they cannot conscientiously permit 
the apostrophe. 

Among these literary foolishnesses and idle dis- 
criminations, are inter-readings of pamphlets on the 
leather trade; the Swamptown Directory, the copy 
being the pages of an old edition, pasted on broad- 
sides of paper, half the names stricken out, and new 
ones inserted haphazard on the wide margin, their 
places in the text indicated by lines crossing and re- 
crossing each other, and occasionally lost in a plexus 
or ganglion; reports of the Panjandrum Grand 
Slump Mining Company, the Glenmutchkin Railway 
Company, and the new and improved Brown Paper 



64 PENS AND TYPES. 

Roofing Company; Proceedings of the National 
Wool-Pulling Association, and of the Society for 
promoting the Introduction of Water-Gas for Culi- 
nary and Illuminating Purposes ; likewise auction- 
bills, calendars, ball-cards, dunning-letters (some of 
these to be returned through the post-office, the proof- 
reader's own feathers winging the shaft), glowing 
descriptions of Dyes, Blackings, Polishes, and Var- 
nishes ; in short, proofs of the endless variety of matters 
which constitute the daily pabulum of a book and job 
office, — and, in all these, style has its requirements. 

If all this be borne in mind, it will not seem sur- 
prising, especially when we reflect that all individ- 
uals in their progress toward a perfect civilization 
are not yet within sight of their goal, — it will not 
seem surprising, if now and then an irate brother 
should rush into the proof-reader's presence, exclaim- 
ing, "What do you mean, sir? I thought I knew 
something, but it appears I don't ! Here you have 
put 4 Hudson street' with a little «, and 4 Hudson 
River ' with a capital M : what sort of work do you 
call that?" Should this occur, the schooled reader 
has but to reply, " That, my dear sir, is the uniform 
style of this office, — we always 4 put things ' as you 
have stated," and the questioner is satisfied, and 
apologetically withdraws. 

As no acknowledged literary Dictator has arisen 
since Johnson (if we except Webster), and as we 
have no good grounds to expect one, let us hope 
there may be a convention of the learned men of the 
United States, with full powers to legislate upon/and 



STYLE. 65 

finally settle, all questions of syntax, orthography, 
punctuation, and style, and authorized to punish 
literary dissenters, by banishment from the Republic 
of Letters. 

Were there a common and acknowledged authority 
to which printer, publisher, proof-reader, and author 
could appeal, the eye, the pen, and the press would 
be relieved of much useless labor, and the cost of 
books would be correspondingly reduced. The 
Smithsonian Institution would confer a lasting bene- 
fit on mankind by establishing a Board or Bureau of 
scholars, which should publish a dictionary of all 
English and Anglicized words, without various spell- 
ings, and also such other words as might meet the 
want long felt, and which was expressed in "The 
Spectator," so long ago as Aug. 4, 1711, — where 
the author, having spoken of certain perplexities 
which beset writers, adds : " [These] will never be 
decided till we have something like an academy, that 
by the best authorities and rules drawn from the 
analogy of languages, shall settle all controversies 
between grammar and idiom." When such works 
from the Smithsonian Institution shall have appeared, 
and Congress shall have adopted them as standards 
to which all Departmental work shall conform, the 
diversities of spelling will disappear from the publi- 
cations of the Government. Those who would 
diffuse knowledge among men should have sharp 
oversight of the vehicle in which knowledge is to be 
conveyed, — to wit, Language, — "the foundation 
for the whole faculty of thinking." 



CHAPTER IV. 

GENERAL REMARKS: CONTAINING SOME ILLUSTRA- 
TIONS OF, AND ADDITIONS TO, THE SUBJECT-MAT- 
TER OF THE FOREGOING THREE CHAPTERS. 

If an author sends his manuscript to the printing- 
office without any instructions or directions as to cap- 
italization, punctuation, etc., the printer will follow 
his own " office style," and the work will be, within 
certain limits, correctly done ; that is, with as near 
an approach to uniformity as it is possible for ordinary 
fallible mortals to attain. But if the manuscript be 
accompanied with numerous "Directions" to the 
printer, some of these will be forgotten or over- 
looked, or become mixed in the minds of composi- 
tors and proof-readers with some set of diametrically 
opposite "Directions," — and so the work will very 
likely abound in incongruities. 

We have known two works to be in hand at the 
same time, one with directions to " Capitalize freely," 
the other, to " Use capitals sparingly." The " Di- 
rections " are sometimes quite minute, almost micro- 
scopic; still, it is the duty of the proof-reader to 
follow them into the very extremities of their little- 
ness. One writer says, " Put up 4 eastern,' 4 western,' 
etc., in such cases as this : 4 The purple finch some- 
times passes the cold season in Eastern Massachu- 

66 



GENERAL REMARKS. 67 

s, and even in Northern New Hampshire'"; 
another directs, "Put compass-points down, as 'In 
northern Nevada.' " If the office style is " Hudson 
and Connecticut Rivers," a direction will be sent in 
thus: "In all my work, print 'Weber and Sevier 
rivers,' 'Phalan's and Johanna lakes' — not Lakes." 
One author wants "VHI-inch gun and 64-pounder"; 
another looks upon this as numerically and typo- 
graphically erroneous, and insists on an " 8-inch gun 
and a LXIV-pounder " ; still another prefers arabic 
figures throughout, and prints an " 8-inch gun and 64- 
pounder"; yet another likes best the first of the 
above styles, but wishes a period placed after the 
roman numerals, so it shall read, an "VHI.-inch 
gun"; one more dislikes "double pointing," and 
would retain the period, but strike out the hyphen. 
44 In my novel, spell 4 Marquise De Gabriac ' with 
a big D, and 4 Madame de Sparre ' with a little ' d.' " 
With hundreds of Reports and reports from Institu- 
tions and institutions, from Departments and depart- 
ments, from Bureaus and bureaus, trials at law, equity 
cases, interference cases, Revised Statutes, and thou- 
sands of documents, all as anxious to attract the 
public eye as ever Mr. Riddleberger was to catch 
the Speaker's, and rushing compositors and proof- 
readers and steam-presses with a dizzying velocity 
which almost prohibits nicety of execution, it were 
far wiser for authors and copyists to attend carefully 
to the legibility and accuracy of their manuscripts, 
than to send to the printer blundering haphazard 
pages, accompanied with directions running counter 



68 PENS AND TYPES. 

to what the writers themselves have exhibited in 
their manuscripts. 

We recollect that a printer once received a manu- 
script accompanied with minute directions, extending 
even to syllabication. It was given out to the com- 
positors, and a rough manuscript it was ; one found 
in his take, "One Spanish Mc Krel" and "One 
caperamber," — as he and the others in his chapel 
read the words, — conundrums which after hard 
study of characteristics and comparison of letters 
were, by an ingenious old typographic Champollion, 
solved as " One Spanish mackerel " and " One caf 6- 
au-lait." 

If Gunther's "Catalogue of Fishes, British Mu- 
seum " is to be written, it is proper to abbreviate it 
to "Gunther's Cat. Fish., Brit. Mus." An author 
who undertook so to write it, jammed the Cat. close 
to the Fish, and placed the first period above the 
line. He should not have been surprised when he 
read in his proof-sheet, "Gunther's Cat-Fish., Brit. 
Mus., — which, although apparently according to 
copy, was not "according to Gunther." 

The use of commas and other pause-marks is to 
bring out the sense, and when capitals will subserve 
the same purpose it is well to use them also, — 
whether one finds a printed Rule directing it or not. 
Thus Stedman writes : 

" In his verse, Emerson's spiritual philosophy and laws of 
conduct appear again, but transfigured. Always the idea of 
Soul, central and pervading, of which Nature's forms are but 
the created symbols. As in his early discourse he recognized 



GENERAL REMARKS. 69 

two entities, Nature and the Soul, so to the last he believed 
Art to be simply the union of Nature with man's will — 
Thought symbolizing itself by Nature's aid." 

Names of States and Territories, when following 
names of cities, towns, and post-offices, are usually 
contracted ; as : 

Savannah, Ga. ; Brunswick, Me. ; San Diego, Cal. ; New 
Orleans, La. ; Plymouth, Mass. 

But in any other connection, names of States and 
Territories are spelled in full ; as : 

Mendocino County, California. We crossed Nevada Terri- 
tory. We visited Luray Cave, Virginia. 

In an office where the employees are accustomed 
to the above rules, absolute uniformity would be 
attainable, if it were not for the interference of spe- 
cialists. If, from such office, a book is issued in 
which you find "Richmond, Virginia," and, farther 
on, "Richmond, Va.," you may be sure that a 
"direction" to "spell out, in all cases, names of 
States and Territories" accompanied the manu- 
script; that one reader, mindful, as it happened, of 
the important direction, spelled "Virginia," while 
another, from force of habit, followed the office style, 
and made no change from the customary " Va." ; and 
you may further conclude, that the author of the 
work, when examining the proof-sheets, had himself 
become oblivious of the direction he had given. 

We have known more than forty special directions 



70 PENS AND TYPES. 

to be sent to a printing-office with the manuscript 
copy of one book. An author may fancy that numer- 
ous minute rulings will ensure uniformity and beauty 
to his book ; but the chances of discrepancy and mis- 
take are increased in direct ratio to the number of 
such of his rulings as run counter to the office style. 
His " more requires less," but produces ^ more." 



CHAPTER V. 

PUNCTUATION. 

Pkintebs and proof-readers are to take for granted, 
that, in every work which falls under their super- 
vision, the proper agreement between thought and 
expression has been effected by the author. He 
alone has the right to change the words and their 
collocation ; and, if fairly punctuated, the manuscript 
should be closely followed, word for word, and point 
for point. 

Every person who writes for the press should 
punctuate his work presentably; but — since the 
majority of writers are inattentive to punctuation — 
custom and convenience, if not necessity, have 
thrown upon the compositor and proof-reader the 
task of inserting in their proper places the grammat- 
ical points, and such other points and marks as shall 
assist a reader in obtaining a ready apprehension of 
the author's meaning. These are the period ( . ), the 
colon (:), the semicolon (;), the comma (,), the 
note of interrogation (?), the note of exclamation 
(!), the parenthesis ( ), and the dash ( — ). 

Besides these principal characters, there are other 
marks and signs used in writing and printing, — the 
hyphen (-), the apostrophe ('), and others; all 
which may be found in the concluding division of 

71 



72 PENS AND TYPES. 

this chapter, numbered viii., and should be referred 
to as occasion may require. 

Books which treat of English grammar speak of 
four of the points in common use — to wit, the 
period, the colon, the semicolon, and the comma — as 
"grammatical" points; while the dash, the note of 
interrogation, the note of exclamation, and the pa- 
renthesis are classified as " rhetorical," — being used 
to indicate various effects produced in conversa- 
tion by changes in the tone of the voice. But 
as "English grammar is the art of speaking and 
writing [or printing] the English language with pro- 
priety," and as all points and marks in the printer's 
case are necessary to printing with propriety, it is 
not essential in this work to make the distinctions 
alluded to above. Nor shall we treat at length, if at 
all, of technical marks not in common use ; as, for 
instance, signs used in algebra and chemistry, and in 
various arts and sciences. These can be referred 
to, should occasion require, in handbooks, and in 
Webster's Dictionary, pp. 1864-68, or in Worcester's, 
pp. 1773-75. 

Our school-books used to tell us, that at the period 
we should stop long enough to count four; at the 
colon, three ; at the semicolon, two ; at the comma, 
one. But pauses vary in length, as readers and 
speakers wish to affect or impress their hearers: 
hence reporters of speeches and orations sometimes 
— finding ordinary points and marks insufficient — 
insert, in brackets, some comment indicating that 
there was a pause made which outreached the time 



PUNCTUATION. 73 

allowed for an ordinary period. We listened in 
April, 1861, to a speech by Wendell Phillips, in 
which, at the close of one sentence, the orator paused 
long enough to count ten or twelve ; the reporters at 
that place inserted in brackets the words " [An im- 
pressive pause]." 1 To denote by distinctive charac- 
ters every possible length of pause would require an 
infinitude of signs, types, and cases. We must there- 
fore do the best we can with the few points now in 
use, leaving much to the taste of authors, printers, 
and readers. Still, the immense advantage modern 
students have over those of ancient times is made 
obvious by a comparison of antique and modern 
writings, — for punctuation is comparatively a modern 
affair, whose origin and changes it will be both useful 
and interesting to trace, — and in doing this, we shall 
endeavor to avoid the charge of prolixity, by con- 
densing into brief space information gained from a 
variety of sources. 

The most ancient Greek manuscript known is 
among the papyri of the Louvre. It is a work on 
astronomy, and is indorsed with deeds of 165 and 
164 B.C. This has "a certain sort of separation of 
words." In a copy of Homer, written B.C., a wedge- 
shaped sign > is inserted "between the beginnings of 

i " There is only one thing those cannon shot in the harbor of 
Charleston settle, — that there never can be a compromise. . . . 
During these long and weary weeks we have waited to hear the 
Northern conscience assert its purpose. It comes at last. [An im- 
pressive pause.] Massachusetts blood has consecrated the pavements 
of Baltimore, and those stones are now too sacred to be trodden by 
slaves." 



74 PENS AND TYPES. 

lines" to mark a new passage. But even these 
marks were soon lost sight of ; subsequent Greek and 
Latin writing runs on continuously without distinc- 
tion of words. In the fifth century of our era, the 
fourth verse of the Second Epistle of John was thus 
written : 

T6XP(x)PaOV7t8Ql7taiOVV 

TagevaXrjdeiaxadujgepTO 

Xt]V6la@ofiepa7ioiov7iQg (The ngg a contraction for najQog!) 

In Greek MSS. this method continued until the 
fourteenth century. 

HOWTHEANCIENTSREADTHEIRWORKSWRITTENIN 
THISMANNERITISNOTEASYTOCONCEIVE 

St. Jerome (a.d. 324-420) wrote a Latin version 
of the Bible — "the foundation of the Vulgate" — 
"per cola et commata" ; not with colons and commas 
as we understand those words, but by a stichometric 
arrangement, — dividing the text into short sentences 
or lines, according to the sense, chiefly with a view 
to a better understanding of the meaning, and a 
better delivery in public reading. It is not until the 
latter part of the seventh century that there is some 
separation of words in Latin MSS. In the later 
Latin (eighth century) the full point in various posi- 
tions was introduced, — being placed on a level with 
the top, bottom, or middle of the letters, — as the stu- 
dents of " Andrews and Stoddard " are well aware. 
In still later MSS. in small letter, the full point 
on the line or high was first used ; then the comma and 



PUNCTUATION. 75 

semicolon; and the inverted semicolon (Q, whose 
power was stronger than the comma. 

In early Irish and English MSS., separation of 
words is quite consistently followed; and in these 
the common mark of punctuation was the full point, 
while to denote the final stop or period one or two 
points with a comma ( . . , ) were used. 

Contractions were much used in ancient MSS. to 
save time and labor. Some of these were denoted by 
a semicolon ; as b ; = bus ; q ; = que ; vi ; = videlicet, 
—this character, in cursive writing, readily became 
a z, whence we have our viz = videlicet. 

The Roman numerals in ancient texts were placed 
between full points ; e. g., .CXL., to prevent confu- 
sion. 

Punctuation remained very uncertain until the end 
of the fifteenth century, when the Manutii, three 
generations of printers, — the elder (1450-1515) the 
most learned, skillful, and energetic of the three, — 
increased the number of points, and made rules for 
their application; and these were so generally 
adopted, that Aldus Manutius and his son and grand- 
son may be considered inventors of the present sys- 
tem of punctuation, notwithstanding it has been 
changed, and perhaps improved upon, since their 
time, — notably in the use of the colon. But scholars 
differ so widely in some respects as to the insertion 
of commas, as well as other points, that not many 
rules are as yet absolutely fixed. 

Modern writers tell us that "points are used to 
mark the sense rather than the pauses" We would 



76 PENS AND TYPES. 

substitute "as well as" for "rather." In writing 
from dictation we place points where the dictator 
makes pauses ; and in reading we make pauses where 
the writer has put the points. For example, note 
the difference in sense and pause, according as the 
comma is placed before or after " to the end," in the 
following sentence : 

I have advised the Attorney-General to read this letter to 
the end, that he may see precisely how this matter will affect 
public interest. 

I have advised the Attorney-General to read this letter, to 
the end that he may see precisely how this matter will affect 
public interest. 

Murray's large octavo English Grammar and count- 
less common-school grammars, from Murray's time to 
the present day, contain rules for aiding students 
and writers to decide where points, and what points, 
should be placed. These are of great utility, and 
every young person should familiarize himself with 
them as found, briefly stated, in books now in use. 
It should be borne in mind, however, that a close 
and slavish adherence to stated forms, without ascer- 
taining their bearings in individual cases, tends to 
becloud the judgment, and may cause an author's 
meaning to be obscured, or even concealed, rather 
than elucidated. 

In books issued by different houses will be found 
great diversity in the manner of pointing similar and 
even the same sentences ; and some part of what we 
have called "style" results from the effort of a 



PUNCTUATION. 77 

house to be consistent with itself, and to establish 
a uniformity among its own issues. 

The rules given in this chapter, and the observa- 
tions accompanying them, are mainly the results of 
our own training and experience as compositor and 
proof-reader at different periods, covering in the ag- 
gregate more than twenty years. To bring out by 
punctuation the sense of difficult and involved sen- 
tences — which are of frequent occurrence — requires 
close attention and careful study, — attention not the 
less close, nor study the less careful, because prompted 
by the necessity of immediate practical application. 

As all rules suitable to guide human conduct lie 
folded up in the golden rule, so all rules for point- 
ing sentences are embraced in this : Punctuate so 
as to bring out the author's meaning. And by their 
consonance with this great rule all special rules must 
be judged. Yet in this, as in all other matters, men 
disagree in their judgments ; and we must be content 
in our diversities, until the academy desiderated by 
- the " Spectator " shall have become an actual institu- 
tion, invested with a quasi grammatical infallibility. 

For instance, as to placing a comma between a 
nominative phrase or sentence and the predicate, the 
best authorities differ. Wilson's rule is, — 

•• No point or pause-mark is admissible between the subject 
or nominative and the predicate, . . . ." 

The "Practical Grammar," by S. W. Clark, A.M., 
published by Am S. Barnes & Co., New York, gives 
the following rule : 



78 PENS AND TYPES. 

44 A phrase or sentence used as the subject of a verb, re- 
quires a comma between it and the verb." 

Of course the examples under the rule exhibit a 
corresponding difference. 

44 To be totally indifferent to praise or censure is a real 
defect in character." — Wilson, 

44 To do good to others, constitutes an important object of 
existence." — Clark, 

Ingersoll's Grammar (Portland, 1828) and KeiTs 
— which last is now very extensively used — agree 
with Clark. Both have the same example as Wilson, 
but pointed as follows : — 

44 To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real 
defect in character." 

Goold Brown (Grammar of Grammars) inserts the 
comma. Cobbett's Grammar omits it. 

Take up the first dozen books that come to hand, 
and you will find diversity of practice. 

44 The influences which Atterbury had fostered long lingered 
in the precincts." — Stanley's Westminster Abbey, 

44 The distinction between transcendental and transcendent, 
is observed by our elder divines and philosophers." — Cole- 
ridge's Biographia Literaria. 

44 The interruption of friendly relations between England 
and Spain was the fault ... of the Emperor." — Fronde's 
England. 

The better method is to omit the comma, except in 
those cases where its insertion would prevent ambi- 
guity ; as in the quotation above, from Stanley, where 
there should have been a comma after " fostered " ; 



PUNCTUATION. 79 

as it stands, the word " long " may qualify either the 
word ^efore or after it. 

So, if you examine any number of volumes with 
reference to placing a comma before and, or, or nor, 
when three or more words, in the same category, are 
connected, — in some you will find " Faith, and hope, 
and charity " ; in others, " Faith and hope and char- 
ity." We have just met with the following lines in 
a well-known paper : 

44 Round and round the atoms fly, 
Turf, and stone, and sea, and sky." 

Wilson's example is (p. 38) , — 

11 Let us freely drink in the soul of love and beauty and 
wisdom from all nature and art and history." 

In view of these and similar differences of practice, 
and contradiction of rules, one is tempted to say that 
it is of no moment whether the commas are inserted 
or not. But, leaving " style " out of the question, a 
proof-reader should endeavor to have a reason for 
every omission he allows, and for every insertion he 
makes. We advise him, then, in the first place to 
note which method seems required by the golden 
rule of elucidating the meaning ; then consider, fur- 
ther, if the sentence already contains commas, whether 
inserting more would offend the eye. Let him decide 
each case on its own merits ; leaning, when in doubt, 
in favor of such grammatical rule as he may have 
adopted. But use judgment; for the most precise 
grammarians lay down pages of exceptions ; and Cob- 
bett (Grammar, Letter xiv.) cannot be gainsaid when 



80 PENS AND TYPES. 

he writes, " It is evident, that, in many cases, the use 
of the comma must depend upon taste." 

When a phrase or clause, in its nature parenthetic, 
is quite closely connected with the parts of the 
sentence in which it is placed, the insertion of the 
comma before and after such phrase or clause " must 
depend upon taste." The former comma especially, 
may often be omitted (see Obs. 10, under Rule 16, 
post). If the commas are inserted, we have a speci- 
men of what is called " close pointing " ; if omitted, 
we have " liberal pointing." 

Close pointing prevails in almost all publications 
except law-work, and in all doubtful cases puts in the 
comma. Liberal pointing, on the other hand, omits 
the points except when absolutely necessary to avoid 
ambiguity. 

A middle course, retaining the spirit rather than 
adhering to the letter of the rules, will be found the 
safest. When, as will often be the case, a passage 
occurs, the meaning of which varies with the inser- 
tion or omission of a comma, while it would be gram- 
matical either way, the compositor should follow the 
copy; the proof-reader should mark the passages 
with his quaere ; but if he first notices the fault when 
reading the press-proof, he should suffer it to stand 
as the author left it, letting all responsibility remain 
where it rightfully belongs. 

Abbreviated words, besides the period denoting 
their abbreviation, require the same pointing as if 
they were spelled in full. Thus " Jno. Smith, Esq., 
of Worcester; Abel Soane, M.D.; and James Doe, 



PUNCTUATION. 81 

LL.D., — were appointed a comm. to take care of 
books, docs., etc., etc.," has the same pointing as 
"John Smith, Esquire, of Worcester; Abel Soane, 
Doctor of Medicine ; and James Doe, Doctor of 
Laws, — were appointed a committee to take care of 
books, documents, and so forth, and so forth." But 
in some classes of work, as Directories, Catalogues 
of books, Genealogies, and where titles and abbrevia- 
tions are of frequent occurrence, double pointing 
may be partially avoided by omitting the comma 
after a period which denotes an abbreviation. 

Neatness requires the omission of the comma be- 
fore leaders ; thus, 

John Roe New Orleans. 

James Doe San Francisco. 

is more pleasing to the eye than 

John Roe, New Orleans. 

James Doe, San Francisco. 

Preambles to resolutions and laws are usually 
begun with " Whereas." After this word a comma 
is sometimes heedlessly inserted, although the intro- 
ductory word is not followed by a parenthetic clause. 
We append the most improved forms for punctuating 
and capitalizing preambles, resolves, and provisos : 

Whereas the present national interest in the matter of the 
American fisheries has, &c. — Cong. Record, July, 11, 1888. 

Whereas, owing to the sudden demise of the secretary, no 
notice was given of the receipts of the plans, etc. : 

Resolved, That the whole matter be ref erred to a committee : 
Provided, [or Provided however, ,] That the whole expense shall 
not exceed, etc. 



82 PENS AND TYPES. 

The semicolon should be placed before as, in an 
enumeration of particulars following a general state- 
ment; thus: 

Many proper names admit of convenient contractions ; as 
Jno., Wm., Benj., Jas., Chas. 

But when as is not preceded by a general or formal 
statement, no point is necessary unless as is followed 
by a parenthetic clause ; as : 

Such names as John, Benjamin, William, admit of conven- 
ient contractions. 

Some fishes, as, for instance, the cod, delight in cold baths, 
and are never found in water above 40° Fahr., unless in care 
of the cook. 

But in liberal pointing, the commas before and 
after " for instance " would be omitted. 

In regard to the points or marks connected with 
"viz.," "namely," and "to wit," the punctuation 
varies according to the structure of the sentences in 
which they occur ; but this does not prevent a pub- 
lishing-house from having a style of its own. It is 
interesting to note the varieties which different offices 
present. We annex a few examples, which may be 
serviceable ; to wit : 

44 Sussex Co., Del., July 5, 1776. We are sorry to say, that 
it is our opinion that they (viz : the enemies of the war) are 
not better affected than they were before the troops came. " — 
Am. Archives, 5th series, Vol. 1, p. 10. 

I never depended on him for any men, or for any participa- 
tion in the Georgia Campaign. Soon after, viz.. May 8th, that 
department was transferred, etc. — Memoirs Gen. Sherman. 



PUNCTUATION. 83 

There is one case in which it is never right to do this ; viz., 
when the opposite party, etc. — Cavendish's style. 

The library is open every secular day throughout the year, 
except the legal holidays, viz., — Washington's Birthday, Fast 
Day, Decoration Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiv- 
ing, and Christmas. — Brookline, Mass., Pub. Lib. Report, 1887. 

Seven of the bishops lived to be over 80 — viz. Llandaff 84, 
Winchester 84, etc. — Nineteenth Century, March, '88. 

Woburn has a population of about 12,000, grouped at four 
principal centers : namely, Woburn Centre, about 8000, etc. — 
Mass. Drainage Comm. 

The Dawes bill deals with two subjects only, namely, the 
ownership of land and citizenship. — N. A. Review, March, '88. 

This, then, is the upshot of the second part of the law, 
namely : (1) that all to whom land is patented become at once 
citizens of the United States ; (2) that all, etc. — ib. 

There are four seasons, namely : spring, summer, autumn, 
winter. 

Four administrative areas are thus created: two primary 
areas — namely, counties at large, and boroughs of 100,000 
inhabitants and upwards. — Nineteenth Century Maga. 

Annapolis, June 25, 1776. That four battalions be instantly 
raised .... each company to consist of ninety men, to wit : 
one captain, two lieutenants, etc. — Am. Archives. 

When viz. or namely or as follows ends a para- 
graph, the colon is commonly inserted; but the 
dash or comma-dash or colon-dash may sometimes 
be noticed, — it is a matter of office style. (See 
Punctuation, Rule 8, posf) 

But if, referring to a succeeding sentence or para- 
graph, the words " the following " or " as follows " 
appear, the sentence in which they occur should be 
closed .with the colon or colon-dash, as in the follow- 
ing examples : 



84 PENS AND TYPES. 

The description given of the English Nonconformists in 
many pages that stand for history, is as follows : That they 
started forth under a well-settled order of constitution and 
discipline of the Church of England, etc. — Ellis's Puritan 
Age. 

Mr. Faulkner, from the Committee on Pensions, to whom 
were referred the following bills, reported them severally 
without amendment, and submitted reports thereon : 

A bill (H. R. 10318) granting a pension to Mary C. Davis ; 
and 

A bill (H. R. 8400) to place the name of John J. Mitchell 
on the pension-roll. — Congressional Record, July 22, '88. 

The hyphen is used to connect the parts of a com- 
pound word; to show the divisions of words into 
syllables ; it is placed at the end of a line when a 
word is not finished; and it is sometimes placed 
between vowels, to show that they belong to different 
syllables (as "co-ordinate"). In regard to its use 
in compound words great diversity exists ; and the 
proof-reader can have, as we believe, no fixed system 
which will apply to all varieties of work. In speci- 
fications for bridges, buildings, etc., the better way is 
to avoid compounding; for, in everything of that 
kind, one will find so many "door-sills," "newel- 
posts," " stair-balusters," " pulley-stiles," etc., that if 
he begin marking in the hyphens he will scarcely 
make an end of it, and many hyphens sadly deform a 
page: better put "door knobs," "window frames," 
" stair nosings," etc., omitting hyphens. 

Here, too, the dictionaries can scarcely be said 
to assist, if they do not even mislead. Worcester 
has "brickwork," "brasswork," without hyphens; 



PUNCTUATION. 85 

"wood-work," " iron-work," with them. "Green- 
house " is closed up, while " school-house " is not ; 
"wood-house" has a hyphen, "almshouse" has none. 
(Wilson writes " schoolhouse.") Webster has " brick- 
work " with the hyphen, " woodwork " without it, — 
just reversing Worcester. Again, Worcester writes, 
"humblebee " and "bumblebee " : Webster, under B, 
has "bumble-bee, .... sometimes called humble- 
bee " ; and, under H, writes " humblebee, .... 
often called bumblebee," apparently forgetful of his 
previous hyphens. 

To search for authority, then, in the matter of com- 
pounding words, will avail next to nothing. In a 
volume containing " School Committees' Reports," — 
and certainly school committees ought to know many 
things, — we find " blackboard " and " black-board " ; 
and, on one page, " schoolbooks," " schoolkeeping," 
" schoolmaster," " school-houses," " school-checks." 
" Semi-annual " is. frequently printed with the hy- 
phen, according to Webster ; but Worcester, omitting 
the hyphen, has " semiannual." 

Thus it appears, that, in regard to compounding 
(by which we mean inserting the hyphen between 
the parts of a compound word), the proof-reader is 
left to his own discretion, and can do veiy much as 
he pleases. He should, however, adopt some method 
by which he can approximate to uniformity in his 
own work; for as to agreeing with anybody else, 
that is out of the question. 

Perhaps as good a rule as can be laid down on this 
subject is to close up the word when compound- 



86 PENS AND TYPES. 

ing changes the accentuation; otherwise, insert the 
hyphen. Thus, "Quartermaster" has a different 
accentuation from the two words " quarter master " ; 
therefore make one word of it, without the hyphen. 
" Head-assistant " is accented like the two words 
" head assistant," — therefore insert the hyphen. By 
tliis rule " schoolhouse " and " blackboard " should be 
severally closed up ; " salt-mine " takes the hyphen, 
— " saltsea " (adjective) does not. 

The word "tree," with a prefix indicating the 
kind, should be compounded; as "oak-tree," "for- 
est-tree," " pine-tree," etc. (Webster has a hyphen 
in " whiffle-tree," Worcester prints " whiffletree.") 

" Cast-iron " and " wrought-iron " are usually com- 
pounded, and should always be so when used as 
adjectives ; as " cast-iron pillars," " wrought-iron 
boilers." 

"Temple-street place" (or "Place," according to 
style), "Suffolk-street District," " Pemberton-square 
School," are quite correct; the hyphen is too fre- 
quently omitted in such cases. 

The words ex officio do not require a hyphen, but 
some very reputable offices insert it. 

Hyphens are sometimes used to indicate grotesque 
pronunciation, as in the following couplet from " Re- 
jected Addresses " : 

44 In borrowed luster seemed to sham 
The rose and red sweet Will-i-am." 

When two words connected by a conjunction are 
severally compound parts of a following word, the 
hyphen is omitted ; as : 



PUNCTUATION. 87 

We use cast and wrought iron pillars. 
I have pruned my peach and apple trees. 

Some authors follow the German style, inserting 
the hyphens; thus: 

We use cast- and wrought-iron pillars. 
I have pruned my peach- and apple-trees. 

But this style is rare. 

Precision requires that hyphens should be inserted 
in fractions expressed in words ; as " one-half," 
"three-fifths," etc. 

How many oranges are seven and three fourths oranges ? 

There being no hyphen in the above example, the 
"seven " and " three " are in the same category as 
"peach" and "apple" in the last previous example. 
The answer is ten-fourths, or 2£. 

If " seven " is meant to express a whole number, a 
hyphen should be inserted after " three." 

A prolific source of trouble in correcting is wrong 
syllabication when it is thought necessary to carry 
part of a word to the succeeding line. Neither the 
English method of dividing on vowels, where this 
can be conveniently done, nor the American method 
of dividing on syllables, obtains exclusively in this 
country. Convenience, and the desire of spacing in 
such a manner as to make the lines look well, fre- 
quently determine the dividing letter ; so that, in the 
same work, you may find "pro-perty" and "prop- 
erty," "trea-sure" and "treas-ure." In a recent 
English work, we note the following divisions : Pre- 



88 PENS AND TYPES. 

bendaries, mea-sure, pre-decessors, supre-macy, the 
Re-formation, pro-perty, theo-logy, bre-thren, pre- 
paration. 

But the division on the syllable is the mode most 
generally practiced in the United States, and we 
must, however reluctantly, adhere to it as closely as 
possible, until a convention of publishers shall sanc- 
tion the adoption of the English usage. Our author- 
ities close the first syllable of " fa-ther " on the a, of 
44 moth-er " on the th, so that, practically, the latter 
word should not be divided at all; the English 
printer, without hesitation, places the hyphen after 
the a and the o respectively. 

As to the word 44 discrepancy " there is a discrep- 
ancy. Webster accents the second syllable, and 
divides 44 discrep-ancy " ; while Worcester accents the 
first syllable, and divides 44 discre-pancy." In this, 
printers and readers must be governed by the " style " 
of the work upon which they are engaged. 

One of the most frequently recurring errors no- 
ticed in reading first proof is the placing of an * at 
the end of a line when it should have been carried 
over. Corres-pondence, des-cribe, des-cription, Aus- 
tralian, are wrong, and are corrected daily ; and their 
reappearance proves that in this, as in weightier mat- 
ters, 44 error is wrought by want of thought." 

In newspapers, or any work which is to be read 
once and then cast aside, the carrying over of an ed 
or tyi or any other syllable of two letters, may per- 
haps be tolerated ; but in bookwork such a division 
is inexcusable, except in side-notes, or when the 



PUNCTUATION. 89 

measure is very narrow. To avoid extremely wide 
or thin spacing, and to escape the trouble and ex- 
pense of overrunning pages already imposed, it must 
be considered admissible, in certain cases, to carry 
over a consonant preceding the final syllable ed; as, 
expec-ted, divi-ded. We state this with some mis- 
givings ; but, as we have known it to be done by • 
excellent readers and skillful printers, even by John 
Wilson himself, of blessed memory, we lay it down 
as allowable in extreme cases. Theories are elastic, 
— are expansible and compressible; but types of 
metal have set dimensions of extension, and, in some 
circumstances, absolutely refuse to budge, — where- 
fore theories must gracefully yield, and allow, it may 
be, a two-letter division even in wide measure. 
Types are tyrannical, and will sometimes perpetrate 
solecisms under the plea of necessity. 

An author can sometimes much improve the appear- 
ance of a page, by slight changes in the phraseology. 
A good compositor studies to avoid divisions. 
Some printers, rather than divide a word, will jus- 
tify a line by separating the words with two three-em 
spaces. But no arbitrary rule can be laid down in 
this regard. A well-spaced page with several divided 
words looks much better than a page unevenly spaced 
in which no divisions occur. The number of hyphens 
occurring in succession at the end of the lines on any 
page, should never exceed three. 

In manuscript the dash occurs more frequently 
than any other mark of punctuation, many writers 



90 PENS AND TYPES. 

using it as a substitute for every other point. This 
habit very much retards the compositor in his task ; 
for, as we have already intimated, he feels obliged to 
study the sense of his copy, and to waste his valu- 
able time in considering how he shall best supply 
those aids to meaning which the author has rejected, 
and without which any work would be wholly unpre- 
sentable. 

That the author of the paragraph quoted below 
pointed it with perfect accuracy before sending it 
to press, does not admit of a doubt. For the nonce, 
however, we will, with his leave, punctuate the pas- 
sage in the manner in which the compositor fre- 
quently finds passages pointed on his " takes " ; thus : 

" It has been said — and — no doubt — truthfully — that the 
smartest boys do not go to college. Yet — it is evident — to 
every one competent to judge — that the ablest men have been 
at college." 

With so many dashes before him, it would not be 
strange if the compositor were to retain some of them ; 
and the proof might, perhaps, appear as follows : 

" It has been said— and no doubt truthfully — that the 
smartest boys do not go to college. Yet it is evident to every 
one competent to judge, that the ablest men have been at col- 
lege." 

This is much improved; and, if we substitute 
commas for the dashes in the first sentence, the 
punctuation may be considered unobjectionable. 

Beginners at the "case" are often puzzled in regard 
to the insertion of commas before the dashes which 



PUNCTUATION. 91 

inclose a parenthetic clause. To decide this point, 
it is enough to notice whether or not a comma would 
be used, were the parenthetic clause omitted. This, 
we think, will be readily understood by reference to 
the following examples : 

"It was necessary not only that Christianity should assume 
a standard absolutely perfect, but that it should apply a perfect 
law to those complex and infinitely diversified cases which 
arise when law is violated." 

Now, if a parenthetic clause is inserted before the 
word "but," the comma should be retained, and 
another placed at the end of the inserted clause; 

thus: 

" It was necessary, not only that Christianity should assume 
a standard absolutely perfect, — which, however far from any- 
thing that man has ever done, would be comparatively easy, 
— but that it should apply a perfect law," etc. 

If there is no comma where the clause is to be 
inserted, dashes alone should be used : 

"In the completed volume of the third report, the countries 
wherein education has received the most attention are treated 
of at length." 

If a parenthetic clause be inserted after "coun- 
tries," — where there is no comma, — only dashes 
are required; thus: 

" In the completed volume of the third report, the countries 
— Prussia, for instance — wherein education has received the 
most attention are treated of at length." 

A thin space should be placed before, and also 
after, a dash. 

If a parenthesis is inserted in a part of a sentence 



92 PENS AND TYPES. 

where no point is required, no point should be placed 
before or after the marks of parenthesis. 

44 By living sparingly, and according to the dictates of reason, 
in less than a year I found myself (some persons, perhaps, 
will not believe it) entirely freed from all my complaints." — 
Cornaro. 

As a general rule, if the parenthesis occur after a 
punctuated clause, the point should be placed after 
the latter mark of parenthesis. 

"Popham's monument, by the intercession of his wife's 
friends (who had interest at Court), was left in St. John's 
Chapel on condition either of erasing the inscription, or turn- 
ing it inwards." 

44 Artist: Kneller (1723). Architects: Taylor (1788); 
Chambers (1796); Wyatt (1813)." 

44 Antiquities of St. Peter's, by J. Crull (usually signed 
J. C.)." 

If a parenthesis which closes with a note of excla- 
mation or interrogation is inserted where a point 
occurs, that point should precede the first mark of 
parenthesis. 

44 Where foresight and good morals exist, (and do they not 
here P) the taxes do not stand in the way of an industrious 
man's comforts." 

" He directed the letter to Gnat Smith, (spelling Nat with 
a G !) and deposited it in a fire-alarm box." 

An exclamation point is often found preceding the 
first mark of parenthesis. 

44 Ay, here now ! (exclaimed the Critic,) here come Cole- 
ridge's metaphysics ! " — Biographia LUeraria. 

44 1 am, sir, sensible " — 4 * Hear ! Hear ! " (they cheer him.) 



PUNCTUATION. 98 

When a parenthesis occurs within a parenthesis, 
brackets should be substituted for the first and last 
parenthetic marks. 

"As for the other party [I mean (do not misunderstand 
me) the original inventor], he was absent from the country, 
at that time." 

"Brackets are generally used ... to inclose an 
explanation, note, or observation, standing by itself." 
— Parker** Aid*. 

A short comment inserted in a paragraph by a 
reviewer is placed in brackets. 

" The sacks were badly eaten by rags [so in the affidavit], 
and the almonds had run out. 11 

In transcripts of trials at law, brackets are used to 
inclose statements of things done in court, which 
things would not appear in a report of the verbal 
proceedings alone ; as, — 

" Ans. About a quarter past ten, he came into my shop, 
and picked out a cane 

*' Gore. Of what wood was it made ? 

"Ans. It was a good piece of hickory — heavy for hick- 
ory 

** [The stick was handed to the witness, who declared it to 
be the same he had sold Mr. Charles Austin.] 

*« Oore. What sticks had he usually bought of you?" — 
Trial of Selfridge. 

Whether the words in brackets should also be in 
italics is a matter of style. In the following passage 
from the same report, italics are used : 



94 PENS AND TYPES. 

" Gore. [Showing the fracture of the hat on the fore-part."] 
Is not that the fore-part of the hat, as this leather [that on the 
hinder part] marks the part of the hat that is worn behind ? " 

For inserting commas or other points after, before, 
or within brackets, the same rules apply as in case of 
marks of parenthesis. 

Whether when a noun singular terminates in 8, its 
possessive case requires an additional 8 is yet an 
open question. We have no hesitation in giving an 
affirmative answer, especially in the case of proper 
names. If Mr. Adams were to manufacture ale, one 
might, perhaps, from prohibitory considerations, advise 
him to advertise it as " Adams' ale " ; but should Mr. 
Adams have no fear of the law, he would avoid all 
misunderstanding by calling it "Adams's ale." It 
may be objected that the position of the apostrophe 
makes the matter sufficiently clear without the addi- 
tional 8. Yes, — to the eye ; but to the ear the pro- 
priety of the additional 8 becomes very apparent. 
" Jacob's pillow " and " Jacobs's pillow " may be of 
very different materials. But, to avoid too much 
sibilation, we read " for conscience' sake," " for good- 
ness' sake," etc. 

The apostrophe, with 8 subjoined, is used to denote 
the plural of letters and figures. 

14 The discipline which is imposed by proving that some ar's 
are some y's, and that other x's are all y's, will enable you to 
pulverize any hot-headed deacor who may hereafter attempt 
to prove that you had better be looking out for another pastor- 
ate." — Ad Clerum. 

" This 7 differs from the other T's." 



PUNCTUATION. 95 

The apostrophe may be used in denoting the plural 
whenever its use will assist in avoiding obscurity. 

" The children called loudly for their pa's and ma's." 

For convenient reference we append a series of 
rules and examples, which, we think, will be found 
useful by teachers and scholars, and our friends of 
the press. 



96 PENS AND TYPES. 

RULES OF PUNCTUATION. 
I. PERIOD, OR FULL POINT. 

1. The period is used at the end of every complete 
sentence which is not interrogative or exclamatory. 

2. Sentences interrogative and exclamatory in 
form, sometimes take the period. 

Will you call at my office, say on Tuesday next, or when- 
ever you happen to be in town, and much oblige — 

Yours truly, John Smith. 

How much better it is, considering the saving of distance to 
the pupils, that two small schoolhouses should be built, rather 
than one large one. 

3. The period is put after initials when used 
alone; also after abbreviations. 

J. Q. Adams. Supt. of R. R. A. M. 

4. Place a period before decimals, and between 
pounds and shillings. 

The French meter is 3.2808992 feet. 

£24. 6s. M. 5.75 miles. 

5. A period should always be put after roman 
numerals, except when used in the paging of. pref- 
aces, etc. 

George III. came to the throne in 1760. 

Observation 1. In many modern works the period Is omitted ; 
as, — 

William I made a mistake. 
There being no comma after " William," it is supposed to be obvi- 
ous that the mistake was made by William the First. The inser- 
tion or omission of the period is becoming wholly a matter of 
printing-office style. 



PUNCTUATION. 97 

H. COLON. 

6. A colon is put at the end of a clause complete 
in sense, when something follows which tends to 
make the sense fuller or clearer. (See Rules 9 
and 13.) 

There is yet another sphere for the electric motor to fill : 
that of street railway propulsion. — N. A. Review ; April, 1888. 

In free states no man should take up arms, but with a view 
to defend his country and its laws : he puts off the citizen when 
he enters the camp ; but it is because he is a citizen, and would 
continue to be so, that he makes himself for a while a soldier. 
— Blackstone's Commentaries, Book I., Ch. 13. 

7. The last of several clauses that introduce a 
concluding remark or sentiment should be followed 
by a colon, if the preceding clauses have been punc- 
tuated with semicolons. 

A pickpocket in every car ; a cheat at every station ; every 
third switch on the road misplaced ; the danger of being hurled 
from the track, and then burned alive: these considerations 
prevent my traveling on the railroad of which you speak. 

Obs. 2. In examples like the above, a very common and per- 
haps better method is to put a comma and dash in place of the 
colon. The colon is neater, but more old-fashioned* (See second 
example under Rule 10. ) 

8. The colon is commonly used whenever an exam- 
ple, a quotation, or a speech is introduced. 

The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the 
Deity in these words : " God is love." 

Obs. 3. Modern writers, instead of the colon, mostly use the 
semicolon, dash, or period. Our first example, under Rule 9, — 
with a colon substituted for the semicolon, — might with propriety 
have been placed under Rule 6. We prefer the semicolon, however; 



98 PENS AND TYPES. 

and if the word for were inserted in the example mentioned, the 
colon would be inadmissible: 

" Let there be no strife between theology and science; for there 
need be none." 

In reprinting old works, the colon should be carefully retained, 
as essential to a clear understanding of them. 

The colon is generally placed after cls follows, the following, in 
these words, thus, or any other word or phrase which formally 
introduces something ; and when the matter introduced forms a 
distinct paragraph, the colon may or may not be followed by a 
dash, as the style of the author or office may require. 



III. SEMICOLON. 

9. When two or more clauses of a sentence are 
not so closely connected as to admit the use of a 
comma, a semicolon is used. 

Let there be no strife between theology and science ; there 
need be none. 

Wisdom hath builded her house ; she hath hewn out her 
seven pillars ; she hath killed her beasts ; she hath mingled 
her wine ; she hath also furnished her table. 

10. When a number of particulars depend on an 
introductory or a final clause, such particulars may 
be separated from each other by a semicolon. 

There are three difficulties in authorship : to write anything 
worth the publishing ; to get honest men to publish it ; and to 
get sensible men to read it. 

To present a general view of the whole Vedic literature ; to 
define its extent ; to divide it into well-distinguished classes of 
writings ; to portray the circumstances of their origin, and the 
stage of cultural development which they represent ; and to 
explain the method of their preservation and transmission to 
us, — were some of the objects which Muller had in view. 



PUNCTUATION. 99 

11. Loosely connected clauses of a sentence should 
be separated by semicolons, if those clauses or any of 
them are subdivided by commas. 

As the rays of the sun, notwithstanding their velocity, injure 
not the eye by reason of their minuteness ; so the attacks of 
envy, notwithstanding their number, ought not to wound our 
virtue by reason of their insignificance. 

Obs. 4. In the first sentence of the following example, a 
comma between the clauses is sufficient, because there are no 
points in the clauses; but the second sentence may serve to illus- 
trate Rules 11 and 12: 

As there are some faults that have been termed faults on the 
right side, so there are some errors that might be denominated 
errors on the safe side. Thus, we seldom regret having been too 
mild, too cautious, or too humble; but we often repent having been 
too violent, too precipitate, or too proud. 

12. When two clauses not closely dependent on 
each other, are connected by but, for, and, or some 
similar connective, they are separated by a semicolon. 

I will not be revenged, and this I owe to my enemy ; but I 
will remember, and this I owp to myself. 

A wise minister would rather preserve peace than gain a 
victory ; because he knows that even the most successful war 
leaves nations generally more poor, always more profligate, 
than it found them. 

Ingratitude in a superior is very often nothing more than 
the refusal of some unreasonable request ; and if the patron 
does too little, it is not unfrequently because the dependent 
expects too much. 

13. Phrases are often set off by a semicolon, viz. : 

a. Explanatory phrases. 

There remain to us moderns, only two roads to success ; 
discovery and conquest. 

b. Participial and adjective phrases. 



100 PENS AND TYPES. 

I have first considered whether it be worth while to say any- 
thing at all, before I have taken any trouble to say it well ; 
knowing that words are but air, and that both are capable of 
much condensation. 

These roads are what all roads should be ; suitable for light 
carriages, and for heavy-laden wagons. 

c. Any phrase, especially if elliptical, or if divisible 
into smaller portions by commas. 

(Obs. 5. In speaking or in writing, we "almost always leave 
out some of the words which are necessary to a full expression of 
our meaning. This leaving out is called the ellipsis.") 

John Milton ; born Dec. 9, 1608 ; completed Paradise Lost, 
1665; died Nov. 10, 1674. 

IV. COMMA. 

14. Repeated words or expressions ; three or more 
serial terms ; two unconnected serial terms, — are 
separated from each other by the comma. 

a. Repeated words or expressions. 
Shut, shut the door. 

I, I, I, I itself, I, 
The inside and outside, the what and the why, 
The when and the where, and the low and the high, 

All I, I, I, I itself, I. 

Give me back, give me back the wild freshness of morning. 

b. Three or more serial terms. 

Shakspeare, Butler, and Bacon have rendered it extremely 
difficult for all who come after them to be sublime, witty, or 
profound. 

The firm of Smith, Longman, Jones, Llewellyn, & Co. 

But some printers, while observing the above rule in gen- 
eral, except the names of firms and railroad companies ; which, 
in their publications, appear as follows : 



PUNCTUATION. 101 

The firm of Longman, Jones, Llewellyn & Co. 
The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe R. R. Co. 

c. Two unconnected serial terms. 
He had a keen, ready wit. 

Obs. 6. The second example under a ( " The inside and out- 
side, the what and the why,") furnishes an illustration of the 
mode of punctuating terms joined in pairs. 

Obs. 7. Style sometimes requires the omission of the comma 
before and, or, nor, when one of these connectives precedes the 
last term of a series: as "Shakspeare, Butler and Bacon have 
rendered it extremely difficult for all who come after them to be 
sublime, witty or profound." But when the words are all in the 
same predicament, the comma should be inserted; e. g., — if you 
wish to state that three certain persons are wise, you would point 
thus: 

" Thomas, Richard, and John are wise." 

But if Richard and John are the Solons, and you wish to inform 
Thomas of that fact, you would point thus: 

" Thomas, Richard and John are wise." 
So, in the first example under b, if it is desired to qualify the 
three adjectives by the phrase " in the highest degree," the comma 
after witty must stand: "in the highest degree sublime, witty, or 
profound." But if that phrase is intended to apply to sublime 
only, the pointing should be thus: " in the highest degree sublime, 
witty or profound." 

15. Phrases, clauses, and words, inverted, or other- 
wise not in their natural position, generally require 
to be set off by a comma. 

Into this illustrious society, my friend was joyfully received. 
When we quarrel with ourselves, we are sure to be losers. 
To satisfy you on that point, I will make a short argument. 

He, like the world, his ready visits pays, 

Where fortune smiles. 
Roe, Richard. Doe, John. 



102 PENS AND TYPES. 

Obs. 8. The exceptions to this rule are numerous. If the first 
and last words of a passage are related (for him the summer wind 
murmured ) ; if the inverted phrase be brief, and can be read in 
close connection with what follows (in youth we have little sym- 
pathy with the misfortunes of age); or if the principal clause is 
itself inverted (In the center of the common rises a noble monu- 
ment), — the comma is usually omitted. 

Obs. 9. In long lists of proper names, as Directories, etc., it 
is usual to omit the comma, although the names are transposed, 
and to print thus: 

Smith James W. 
Thomson Theophilus. 

16. When the principal sentence is broken to 
receive an incidental or parenthetic expression, a 
comma is placed at the break, and another at the 
end of the inserted clause. 

Rulers and magistrates should attempt to operate on the 
minds of their respective subjects, if possible, by reward 
rather than punishment. 

Some writers, in a vain attempt to be cutting and dry, give 
us only that which is cut and dried. 

It is known to every physician, that, whatever lazy people 
may say to the contrary, early rising tends to longevity. 

Go, then, where, wrapt in fear and gloom. 
Fond hearts and true are sighing. 

Obs. 10. The former comma is frequently omitted. Especially 
is this the case when the previous part of the sentence has required 
commas. Liberal pointing would omit the comma after " where," 
in the above example. And in the following sentence, from Gen- 
eral Marcy's " Ramblings in the West," note the omission of the 
comma after "and," and from the parenthetic clause "it was 
believed " : 

This, with the destruction of our trains, consumed the greater 
part of our winter supplies, and as they could not be replenished 
from the Missouri River before the following June, General 
Johnston, the commander, determined to send a detachment 
directly over the mountains to New Mexico, from whence it was 
believed supplies could be obtained earlier than from farther east. 



PUNCTUATION. 103 

Notice, also, the omission of the comma after " and " and 
"but," in the following paragraphs: 

He left college; and forsaken by his friends, he took refuge with 
the parliament party. — Marsh, Eccl. Hist. 

The written law is sufficient to decide this case ; but inasmuch 
as the irregularity in question is a fertile source of disputes, the 
case has been deemed worthy of insertion. — Cavendish, 

(The most common parenthetic expressions are at least, at 
most, accordingly, as it were, beyond question, consequently, 
doubtless, furthermore, generally speaking, in the mean lime, on 
the otfier hand, etc.) 

17. Words or phrases expressing contrast, or em- 
phatically distinguished, and terms having a common 
relation to some other term that follows them, require 
the comma. 

a. Contrast or notable difference. 
His style is correct, yet familiar. 

I asked for money, not advice. 

Twas fat, not fate, by which Napoleon fell. 

Although Prince Hohenlohe was far more specific in point- 
ing out what ought to be avoided than in showing what ought 
to be done, yet there could be no mistaking the course which 
the government was intending to pursue. 

They are charitable, not to benefit the poor, but to court the 
rich. 

Obs. 11. Two contrasted words having a common dependence, 
and connected by but, though, yet, or as well as, should not be 
separated; as, There are springs of clear but brackish water. 

b. Terms having a common relation to a succeed- 
ing term. 

Ordered, That the Committee on Banking be, and they 
hereby are, instructed to report a bill. 



104 PENS AND TYPES. 

That officer was not in opposition to, but in close alliance 
with, thieves. 

Obs. 1 2. Some proof-readers, however, omit the second com ma, 
when but a single word follows the latter proposition; as, "Many 
states were in alliance toith, and under the protection of Rome." 
The better method is to insert the point. " [Bonner was] an 
accomplished Italian, and probably also a Spanish, scholar." — 
Fronde. 

18. Correlative terms, or expressions having a 
reciprocal relation, are separated by a comma. 

The farther we look back into those distant periods, all the 
objects seem to become more obscure. 

The more a man has, the more he wants. 

As he that knows how to put proper words in proper places 
evinces the truest knowledge of books, so he that knows how 
to put fit persons in fit stations evinces the truest knowledge 
of men. 

It is not so difficult a task to plant new truths, as to root out 
old errors. 

Where MacDonald sits, there is the head of the table. 

Cincinnatus and Washington were greater in their retire- 
ment, than Coesar and Napoleon at the summit of their ambi- 
tion ; since it requires less magnanimity to win the conquest, 
than to refuse the spoil. 

Obs. 13. Sometimes when that, and generally when as or than, 
no that or such that is used, the connection is too close to admit 
the comma. 

Cromwell's enemies say that he always fought with more sin- 
cerity than he prayed. 

Your house is larger than mine. 

Paper is not so good as gold. 

The old gentleman is so infirm that he can scarcely move. 

He told such a story that we were all deceived by it. 



PUNCTUATION. 105 

19. Words used in direct address, and independent 
and absolute words, with what belongs to them, are 
separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. 

Q. You say, Mr. Witness, that you were present? 

A. Yes, sir. 

Flow gently, sweet Afton, among thy green braes. 

My son, give me thy heart. 

At length, having fought the good fight, he left the world 
in peace. 

To confess the truth, I was in fault. 

Richard Roe, his father being dead, succeeded to the estate. 

Silence having been obtained, the speaker went on with his 
remarks. 

20. The clauses of a compound sentence may be 
separated by a comma when the connection is too 
close for the semicolon. 

The winds roared in the woods, and the torrents tumbled 
from the hills. 

Hasten to your homes, and there teach your children to 
detest the deeds of tyranny. 

It has, by some grammarians, been given as a rule, to use 
a comma to set off every part of a compound sentence, which 
part has in it a verb not in the infinitive mode. 

Obs. 14. A dependent clause should be separated by a comma, 
unless closely connected. 

It argues a defect of method, when an author is obliged to 
write notes upon his own works. 

Unless we hurry to the beach, the tide will overtake us. 

Whatever reception the present age may give this work, we rest 
satisfied with our endeavors to deserve a kind one. 

When the Tartars make a Lama, their first care is to place him 
in a dark corner of the temple. 

Obs. 15. If a clause beginning with as, because, if, wherever, 
how, lest, than, that, when, where, whether, while, why, or any 



106 PENS AND TYPES. 

adverb of time, place, or manner, follows a clause with which it is 
closely connected in sense, it is not set off by a comma: " He went 
away when the boat left. ,, "We love him because he first loved 
us." "He will pay if he is able." "Tell me whether you will 
return." 

Obs. 16. An infinitive phrase closely connected with what it 
modifies, should not be set off by a comma; as, " We use language 
to express our thoughts." *' Nouns do not vary their endings to 
denote certain cases." But if the infinitive phrase is preceded by 
in order, or if it is remote from what it modifies, it should be set 
off by a comma. " He collected a great many young elms from 
various parts of England, to adorn his grounds." " If dissimu- 
lation is ever to be pardoned, it is that which men have recourse 
to, in order to obtain situations which will enlarge their sphere of 
general usefulness." 

21. A word or phrase used in apposition, to expli- 
cate or illustrate a previous word or phrase, should 
be set off by commas ; but if the words in apposition 
constitute a single phrase or a proper name, they 
should not be separated. 

a. Comma required. 

Johnson, that mighty Caliban of literature, is held up to 
view in the pages of Boswell. 

The alligator, or cayman, is found in the Orinoco. 

Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for his zeal 
and knowledge. 

If the position of the terms in apposition is re- 
versed, commas are required. 

The apostle of the Gentiles, Paul, was eminent for his zeal 
and knowledge. 

That old last century poet, Crowley, sings thus. 

6. Comma not required. 

Johnson the lexicographer completed his dictionary in seven 
years. 



PUNCTUA TION. 107 

We the undersigned agree to pay the sums set against our 
names respectively. 

Jeremy the prophet commanded them that were earned 
away to take of the fire, as it hath been signified. 

I Paul have written it with mine own hand. 
The poet Chaucer lived in the reign of Richard II. 
Sir John Walpole understood two grand secrets of state : 
the power of principal, and the weakness of principle. 

22. A simple sentence usually requires no point 
except the period at the end of it. 

Count Bismarck has preserved a pleasant intimacy with his 
old preceptor. 

Obs. 17. When the subject is a clause ending with a verb, or 
with a noun that might be mistaken for the nominative, a comma 
should be inserted before the predicate. 

That winter campaigns are undertaken, shows a desire to kill 
the Indians. 

Captain Smith's obedience to orders, issued in his promotion. 

Every year that is added to the age of the world, serves to 
lengthen the thread of its history. 

He that gives a portion of his time and talent to the investiga- 
tion of mathematical truth, will come to all other questions with 
a decided advantage over his opponents. 

In the following sentence, a comma after " them " might not 
be improper (for we once heard a reader place a pause after 
"attacked "), — but we shall not attack one of General Sher- 
man's sentences, lest we ** get the worst of it." 

During this campaign hundreds if not thousands of miles 
of similar intrenchments were built by both armies, and as a 
rule whichever party attacked one of them got the worst of 
it. — Memoirs Gen. W. T. Sherman. 

Obs. 18. Whether a comma should be inserted after the verb 
to be, when that verb is followed by an infinitive clause which 
might by transposition be made the nominative, is a question on 
which the best authorities differ. 

First Method. —The highest art of the mind of man is to pos- 
sess itself with tranquillity in the hour of danger. 



108 PENS AND TYPES. 

Second Method. — The highest art of the mind of man is, to 
possess itself with tranquillity in the hour of danger. 

We are of opinion that usage is in favor of the omission of the 
comma, as in the following examples: 

The proposed object of the Union Dictionary is to comprehend 
at once all that is truly useful in Johnson, Sheridan, and Walker. 
— Thomas Browne. 

The grandest of all conditions is to be at once healthy and wise 
and good. — LPArcy Thompson. 

Obs. 19. When the subject is an infinitive phrase, the better 
method is not to separate it; as, "To be totally indifferent to 
praise or censure is a real defect in character." Still there is 
excellent authority for inserting a comma, thus: "To be totally 
indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect in character." In 
sentences of this kind we advise the proof-reader to omit the 
comma unless the author is uniform in the insertion of it. 

Obs. 20. Some grammarians set off by a comma the predicate, 
when it refers to separated nominatives preceding it; as, " The 
benches, chairs, and tables, were thrown down." And, again, we 
find this example given: "Veracity, justice, and charity, are 
essential virtues." So, in the ordinances of the City of Boston, 
"if any person or persons shall roast any cocoa," without having 
complied with certain conditions, " he, she, or they, shall forfeit 
and pay for every such offense," etc., — a comma appearing after 
they, although a conjunction precedes it. But the weight of 
authority is against separating the last noun or pronoun of such 
compound subject from the verb when the conjunction is used. 
The last quotation, above given, should read, "he, she, or they 
shall forfeit," etc. 

23. A comma should be placed before or after a 
word or phrase, to associate it with the group to 
which it belongs, if, without the comma, the sentence 
would be equivocal ; and generally, a comma may be 
inserted wherever its use will prevent ambiguity. 

This man, only cared to lay up money. 

This man only, cared to lay up money. 

Whoever lives opprobriously, must perish. 

The first maxim among philosophers is, that merit only, 
makes distinction. 



PUNCTUATION. 109 

The delight which I found in reading Pliny, first inspired 
me with the idea of a work of this nature. — Goldsmith. 

My communication was offered and refused. 

My communication was offered, and refused on account of 
its length. 

Obs. 21. We recently met with this last sentence, pointed as 
follows: " My communication was offered and refused, on account 
of its length " ; but it is not easy to see why the length of a com- 
munication should be assigned as the reason for having offered it. 

" Every favor a man receives in some measure sinks him below 
his dignity." — Goldsmith. 

Obs. 22. A comma should have been placed after receives. 

24. No comma is put between two words or phrases 
in apposition, following the verbs think, name, make, 
consider, and others of a similar meaning. 

They made him their ruler. 

They called him captain. 

They saluted him king. 

I esteem you my friend. 

Believing him an honest man, we elected him treasurer. 

We constituted our Secretary a depositary of German books. 

I consider him a gentleman. 

Obs. 23. Of the terms in apposition, one is the subject, and 
the other the predicate, of to be, understood ( " They made him to 
be their ruler"). The rule might, therefore, be worded thus: 
When, of two terms in apposition, one is predicated of the other, 
no comma is required. 

25. In a compound sentence, the comma is often 
inserted where a verb is omitted. 

In literature, our taste will be discovered by that which we 
give ; our judgment, by that which we withhold. 

Wit consists in finding out resemblances ; judgment, in dis- 
cerning differences. 



110 PENS AND TYPES. 

In the pursuit of intellectual pleasure lies every virtue ; of 
sensual, every vice. 

Sheridan once observed of a certain speech, that all its facts 
were invention, and all its wit, memory. 

Obs. 24. But sometimes the comma is not inserted : especially 
when the style is lively ; when the clauses have a common relation 
to something that follows ; or when they are connected by a con- 
junction. 

Could Johnson have had less prejudice, Addison more profund- 
ity, or Dryden more time, they would have been well qualified for 
the arduous office of a critic. 

The Germans do not appear so vivacious, nor the Turks so 
energetic, as to afford triumphant demonstrations in behalf of the 
sacred weed. 

The boat was tight, the day fine, the bait tempting, and the 
fishes hungry. 

26. A short quotation, a remarkable expression, or 
a short observation somewhat in manner of a quota- 
tion, is set off by the comma. 

Plutarch calls lying, the vice of slaves. 

It hurts a man^ pride to say, I do not know. 

Cicero observed to a degenerate patrician, "I am the first 
of my family, but you are the last of yours." 

An upright minister asks, what recommends a man ; a cor- 
rupt minister, who. 

There is an old poet who has said, "No deity is absent, if 
prudence is with thee." 

They tell me here, that people frequent the theater to be * 
instructed as well as amused. 

The old proverb, *• Too much freedery breeds despise," is 
now rendered, •' Familiarity breeds contempt." 

Obs. 25. When the introductory clause is short, the comma 
maybe omitted; as " Charles Fox said that restorations are the 
most bloody of all revolutions." — " Madame de Stael admits that 
she discovered, as she grew old, the men could not find out that 
wit in her at fifty, which she possessed at twenty-five." 



PUNCTUATION. Ill 

27. Numbers are divided by the comma into 
periods of three figures each. 

The distance of the sun from the earth is usually stated at 
95,000,000 miles. 

Obs. 26. In a number expressing the year of an era, the 
comma is not used ; as, July 4, 1876. In tabular work it is very 
neat and convenient to omit the comma, as in the following 
example : 

The number of letters in 1600 lbs. of Pica is as follows: 

a 17000 

b 3200 

c 6000 

d 8800 

e 24000, etc. 

Obs. 27. In some offices the style requires all numbers less 
than 1,000 to be expressed in words; 1,000 and upwards in figures. 
Some printers insert the comma before hundreds, only when five 
figures or more occur. 

28. Restrictive phrases or clauses are not set off 
by the comma. 

He reviewed such regiments as were armed with Enfield 
rifles. 

They flatter the vanities of those with whom they have to do. 

Attend to the remarks which the preacher is about to make. 

Bishop Watson most feelingly regrets the valuable time he 
was obliged to squander away. 

A false concord in words may be pardoned in him who has 
produced a true concord between such momentous things as the 
purest faith and the profoundest reason. 

•'He is known by his company" is a proverb that does not 
invariably apply. 

Cattle which live in herds, are subject to various diseases. 



112 PENS AND TYPES. 

Obs. 28. Adjective elements which are simply descriptive, and 
not restrictive, should be set off by commas; thus: 

Cattle, which live in herds, are subject to various diseases. 

The first verse of the fourteenth chapter of Job, in the KJng 
James Bible, reads: 

Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble. 

The Douay Bible reads: 

Man born of a woman, living for a short time, is filled with 
many miseries. 

The Protestant Episcopal Burial Service points correctly: 

Man, that is born of a woman, hath but a short time to live, 
and is full of misery. 



V. THE NOTE OF INTERROGATION. 

29. The note of Interrogation is placed at the end 
of a direct question. 

Can gold gain friendship ? 

Is that the best answer you can give to the fourteenth cross- 
interrogatory ? 

Is any among you afflicted ? 

Oh, lives there, Heaven, beneath thy dread expanse, 
One hopeless, dark idolater of Chance? 

Obs. 29. When several distinct questions occur in succession, 
the practice of some writers is to separate them by commas or 
semicolons, placing the question-mark at the close only; as: 

" Where was Lane then; what was his situation ?" — Trial of 
SeJfridge. 

" Am I Dromio, am I your man, am I myself? " 

This we regard as incorrect. Each several question should have 
the interrogation point. 

Dro. S. Do you know me, sir? am I Dromio? am I your 
man ? am I myself ? 



PUNCTUATION. 113 

Rosalind. What did he when thou saw'st him ? What said 
he ? How looked he ? Wherein went he ? What makes he here ? 
Did he ask for me ? Where remains he ? How parted he with 
thee ? and when shalt thou see him again ? 

Obs. 30. If several questions in one sentence are joined by 
connectives, each question takes the note of interrogation. " Have 
I not all their letters to meet me in arms by the ninth of the next 
month ? and are they not, some of them, set forward already ? " 

Obs. 31. When a sentence contains several interrogative 
clauses, having a common relation to, or dependence on, one 
term, a single interrogation point is sufficient. 

"Was I, for this, nigh wrecked upon the sea: 
And twice by awkward wind from England's bank 
Drove back again unto my native clime ?" 

" By sensational preaching do you mean an incoherent raving 
about things in general and nothing in particular; a perversion of 
every text; an insult of common sense; a recital of anecdotes 
which are untrue, and a use of illustrations which are unmeaning ? " 

Who will count the value to a man to be raised one remove 
higher above the brute creation; to be able to look with the eye of 
intelligence, instead of vacant ignorance, upon the world in which 
he lives; to penetrate as far as mortals may into the mystery of 
his own existence, and to be made capable of enjoying the rational 
delights of that existence; to be protected by his knowledge from 
every species of quackery, fanaticism, and imposture; and to know 
how to estimate and use the gifts which a beneficent Creator has 
spread around him? — Prof. L. Stevens, Girard Coll. 

" What can preserve my life, or what destroy ? " 

Note. — An assertion stating a question does not take the inter- 
rogation point ; as, " The question is, what lenses have the greatest 
magnifying power." 



VI. THE NOTE OF EXCLAMATION. 

30. The note of Exclamation is applied to expres- 
sions of sudden or violent emotion ; such as surprise, 
grief, joy, love, hatred, etc. 

O piteous spectacle ! O noble Caesar ! O woful day ! 

An old lady one day importuning Mahomet to know what 



114 PENS AND TYPES. 

she ought to do, in order to gain Paradise, — " My good lady," 
answered the Prophet, "old women never get there." — 
"What! never get to Paradise!" returned the matron in 
a fury.. "Never!" says he, "for they grow young by the 
way ! " 

Why was this heart of mine formed with so much sensibil- 
ity ! or why was not my fortune adapted to its impulse ! Poor 
houseless creatures ! The world will give you reproaches, but 
will not give you relief. 

Ah ! well of old the Psalmist prayed 
" Thy hand, not man's, on me be laid! " 
Earth frowns below, Heaven weeps above, 
And man is hate, but God is love ! 

31. The exclamation point is used in invocations. 

Father of all ! in every age adored. 
Gentle spirit of sweetest humor who erst did sit upon the 
easy pen of my beloved Cervantes ! 

Oh, my brothers ! oh, my sisters ! 
Would to God that ye were near ! 

32. Several exclamation points are sometimes used 
together, to express ridicule, or to intensify sur- 
prise, etc. 

Malherbe observed, that a good poet was of no more service 
to the church or the state, than a good player at ninepins ! ! 

VII. THE DASH. 

33. The Dash is used where a sentence breaks off 
abruptly. 

Charles. You must invent some ingenious subterfuge — 
some — some kind of — 

Project. I understand ; not a suggestiofalsi, but a mild sup- 
pressio veri. 



PUNCTUATION. 115 

Charles. Oh, is that what you call itP There is a shorter 
word — 

Project. There is ; but it is not professional. 

I shall divide the subject into fifteen heads, and then I shall 
argue thus — but, not to give you and myself the spleen, be 
contented at present with an Indian tale. 

34. The dash is used before and after a paren- 
thetic clause, when not closely enough connected to 
admit the comma. 

But it remains — and the thought is not without its comfort- 
ing significance, however hardly it may bear on individual 
cases — that no bestowal of bounty, no cultivation of the amen- 
ities of life, . . . can wipe out the remembrance of even 
doubtful loyalty in the day of trial. 

Obs. 32. If a parenthetic clause is inserted where a comma is 
required in the principal sentence, a comma should be placed 
before each of the dashes inclosing such clause. {See last paragraph 
on p. 90). 

I should like to undertake the Stonyshire side of that estate, — 
it's in a dismal condition, — and set improvements on foot. 

35. Several clauses having a common dependence, 
are separated by a comma and a dash from the clause 
on which they depend. 

To think that we have mastered the whole problem of 
existence ; that we have discovered the secret of creation ; that 
we have solved the problem of evil, and abolished mystery 
from nature and religion and life, — leads naturally to a pre- 
cipitation of action, a summary dealing with evils, etc. (See 
Example and Obs. under Rule 7.) 

36. The dash is used with the comma, the semi- 
colon, and the colon, which it lengthens, or renders 
more emphatic. 



116 PENS AND TYPES. 

We read of " merry England"; — when England was not 
merry, things were not going well with it. We hear of *' the 
glory of hospitality," England's pre-eminent boast, — by the 
rules of which all tables, from the table of the twenty-shilling 
freeholder to the table in the baron's hall and abbey refectory, 
were open at the dinner-hour to all comers. — Froude. 

Matricaria, n. A genus of plants, including the feverfew, 
or wild camomile ; — so called from the supposed value of 
some species as remedies for certain disorders. — Webster's 
Dictionary. 

They did it without being at all influenced by the Anabap- 
tists of the continent: — the examples of some of these had 
rather kept them together. — D'Aubigne. 

37. When words are too closely connected to 
admit a strictly grammatical point, the dash is 
used to denote a pause. 

My hopes and fears 
Start up alarmed, and o'er life's narrow verge 
Look down — on what ? A fathomless abyss. 

The king of France, with twice ten thousand men, 
Marched up the hill, and then — marched down again. 

38. When a word or phrase is repeated emphati- 
cally, or echoed, it is preceded by the dash. 

The immediate question is upon the rejection of the Presi- 
dent's message. It has been moved to reject it, — to reject it, 
not after it was considered, but before it was considered ! 

The world continues to attach a peculiar significance to cer- 
tain names, — a significance which at once recurs to one on 
hearing the isolated name unapplied to any individual. 

39. An equivalent expression, or an idea repeated 
in different words, is properly set off by the comma 
and dash. 



PUNCTUATION. 117 

These are detached thoughts, — memoranda for future use. 
Wolsey's return to power was discussed openly as a proba- 
bility, — a result which Anne Boleyn never ceased to fear. 

There are three kinds of power, — wealth, strength, and 
talent. 

The value of our actions will be confirmed and established 
by those two sure and sateless destroyers of all other things, 
— Time and Death. 

The present time has one advantage over every other, — it 
is our own. 

Those who submit to encroachments to-day are only prepar- 
ing for themselves greater evils for to-morrow, — humiliation 
or resistance. 

Obs. 33. In a portion of the examples under this rule, the dash 
appears to supply the place of viz., or namely. 

40. A dash placed between two numbers indicates 
that the natural series between those numbers is 
understood. 

Obs. 34. If a writer refer to " pp. 90, 95," he means those 
two pages only; but if he cite " pp. 90-95," tlje reference is to pages 
90, 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95. — In dates of the same century, the fig- 
ures denoting the century are omitted in the second number: " He 
has the Farmer's Almanac for 1810-70, — sixty-one years." (It 
will be observed, that, under this rule, the short or en dash is 
used.) 

The style of the Government Printing Office, Washington, re- 
quires an apostrophe to denote the elision of the centuries; as 
1889- , 90. 

41. An Ellipsis of letters is denoted by a dash. 
Ex-President J — ns — n. King F — der— ck W m. 

42. When a sentence is abrupted (1) to form a 
heading, or (2) for a signature, or (3) to admit a 



118 PENS AND TYPES. 

new paragraph, or for other purposes, a dash is used 
at the break ; as : 

From the preceding tables we are now able to formulate in 
concise language the — 

Grand Result. 
1. The number of employees . . . is at least 1,250,000. — 
Mass. Labor Report. 

It is useless for you to dissemble in the presence of — 

Yours, etc. John Smith. 

The greatest cowards in our regiment were the greatest 
rascals in it. There was Sergeant Kumber and Ensign — 
We'll talk of them, said my father, another time. — Sterne. 

VIH. VARIOUS MARKS USED IN WRITING AND 
PRINTING. 

The Hyphen is used to denote the division of a 
word into syllables ; as, in-ter-dict : it is placed at the 
end of a line (usually at the close of a syllable), 
when a word is not finished: and it connects the 
parts of a compound word; as, "At Cambridge, 
Cecil was present at the terrible and never-to-be-for- 
gotten battle between Cheke and Gardiner on the 
pronunciation of the Greek epsilon, which convulsed 
the academic world." (See p. 84, et seq.) 

The Apostrophe is used to abbreviate a word ; as, 
His for it is, tho* for though, don't for do not. It 
denotes the possessive case ; as, " John's hat," " three 
years' service," "one hour's work," "two days' no- 
tice," "Smith & Co.'s shops," "Brook's book," 
"Brooks's book." It appears in names; as, O'Brien; 
M'[Mac]Mahon. 



PUNCTUATION. 119 

In French, no space is put after an apostrophe 
denoting elision ; as, " d'or " : in Italian, a space is 
inserted * as, " n' arrivi." 

A turned comma sometimes denotes the ac in Mac ; 
as, M^Donough. 

Two commas (usually turned) are often used in- 
stead of do. (ditto). 

Book of History. 



Carving knives 
Pocket " 
Case " 



Chemistry. 
Algebra. 



Quotation marks [" " or " "] are used to include 
a copied passage. If the copied passage itself con- 
tains a quotation, the latter is denoted by single 
marks [* ' or ' '] ; as, " My father said in banter, 
4 James, the notes are not correct.' The farmer 
dryly answered, 4 1 dinna ken what they may be noo ; 
but they were a' richt afore ye had your fingers in 
amang 'em.' " 

In some publications a little labor is saved by using 
single marks for the principal quotations, and double 
if there happen to be inserted ones ; as in a recent 
novel by Mrs. Humphrey Ward : 

4 To plunge into the Christian period without having first 
cleared the mind as to what is meant in history and literature 
by <4 the critical method" which in history may be defined, 1 etc. 

The same neat style is used in Max Muller's 
Translation of Kant : 

What Kant felt in his heart of hearts we know from some 
remarks found after his death among his papers. * It is dis- 



120 PENS AND TYPES. 

honorable, 1 he writes, * to retract or deny one's real convictions, 
but silence in a case like rny own, is the duty of a subject ; 
and though all we say must be true, it is not our duty to de- 
clare publicly all that is true.' — Preface. 

Brackets are used to inclose words omitted by a 
writer or copyist ; as, " Were you [on the] deck of 
the steamer at the [time] of the collision?" (In the 
Holy Scriptures, supplied words are put in italics : 
" Because they sought it not by faith, but, as it were, 
by the works of the law.") Explanations inserted 
in text are usually inclosed in brackets ; as in the 
following instance, from " The Life of Dr. Gold- 
smith " : " You see, my dear Dan, how long I have 
been talking about myself. [Some mention of private 
family affairs is here omitted.'] My dear sir, these 
things give me real uneasiness," etc. 

Marks of Parenthesis are used to inclose a sentence, 
or part of a sentence, which is inserted in another 
sentence : " One Sunday morning, when her daughter 
(afterwards Lady Elton) went into the kitchen, she 
was surprised to find a new jack (recently ordered, 
and which was constructed on the principle of going 
constantly without winding up) wholly paralyzed 
and useless." 

The Index [fl®*] is used to draw attention to 
some particular passage. Sometimes an Asterism 
[%*] is used for the same purpose. Where there 
are many footnotes on a page, the Index is a proper 
reference mark. 



PUNCTUATION. 121 

The Caret [A] is used in writing, to denote the 
point where an interlineation is to be inserted. It is 
sometimes used in printing when the exact character 
of a manuscript is to be represented, — as in "ex- 
hibits " in law work. 

The Brace [-^^] is used to connect a number of 
words with one common term; and sometimes in 
poetry, to connect three lines which rhyme together : 

Moore's Works, 

Saurin's Sermons, ^ $1.75 each. 

Lewis's Plays, 

Injustice, swift, erect, and unconfined, 

Sweeps the wide earth, and tramples o'er mankind, 

While prayers, to heal her wrongs, move slow behind. 



ks, } 
nons, v$l.i 

9» ) 

'• 1 

bind.) 



Marks of Ellipsis or Omission are the dash; as, 
"Col. Sm— h": or asterisks; as, "Col. Sm**h": 
or, neatest of all, points ; as, " Col. Sm . . h." 

Leaders are dots which lead the eye from some- 
thing on the left of the page, to some connected 
matter on the right : 

Globe Insurance Co London, Eng. 

Mutual Life In. Co Hartford, Conn. 

Accents are the Grave p], the Acute ['], and 
the Circumflex [ A ]: & is read by the copy-holder 
grave e ; 6, acute e ; 8, circumflex e. 

Marks of Quantity are the Long, as over o in 
"show"; the Short, or Breve, as over o in "n8t"; 
and the Diaeresis, which denotes that the latter of 



122 PENS AND TYPES. 

two vowels is not in the same syllable as the former ; 
as, "zoology," "Antinoiis." 

The Cedilla is a curve line under the letter <?, to 
denote that it has the sound of * ; as in " gar9on," 
"fa£ade." It appears in words from the French 
language. Worcester uses it also to denote the soft 
sounds of #, *, and x ; as in " misled " exaggerate." 
Webster uses it only to denote the soft sound of <?, 
as in " min-^ing-ly:" We remark here, by the way, 
that in dividing such words as "bra-cing," "min- 
cing," " convin-cing," etc., the e should be carried 
over, thereby preserving its proper sound. For a 
similar reason divide "enga-ging," u ra-ging," etc., 
on the a. Whether " ma-gis-trate " should follow 
this rule is a matter of style. There are offices 
which so divide it, while others divide on the g. We 
prefer to syllable the word as we have written it, — 
on the a. 

The Spanish fi has the sound of n in onion ; as, 
"Sefior," "cafion." 

Umlaut (pron. oomlowt), as defined by Webster, 
is the change or modification of a vowel sound, pecul- 
iar to the Germanic languages ; as in German, Mann^ 
man, Manner or Maenner, men. The name Roelker 
may also be written Rolker. 

^[ denotes the beginning of a paragraph, as may be 
noticed in the Sacred Scriptures. In proof-reading 
and in manuscript, it is used to denote where a para- 
graph or break should be made. 



PUNCTUATION. 123 

§ denotes a section ; §§, sections ; as, Gen. Stat., 
Chap. IX., § 19, and Chap. X., §§ 20 and 21. 

Reference to notes at the bottom of the page (com- 
monly termed footnotes) is usually made by the 
asterisk, * , the obelisk, or dagger, f ; the double 
obelisk, or double dagger, J; the section, §; the 
parallels, || ; the paragraph, ^f ; and the index, flgp^, 
— but a neater mode is to use superiors ; as, *. 2 > 3 > 
or a » b » S commencing with l or a on each page where 
notes occur. 

In concluding our chapter on punctuation, we 
venture to say to our friends at the case, that, in our 
opinion, no system of pointing can be of uniform and 
universal application. Men differ as much in style 
of writing as in personal appearance ; and we might 
as well expect the same robe to fit all forms, as that 
one set of rules shall nicely apply to the endless 
diversities of diction. 

Other things being equal however, he who has paid 
most attention to rule will punctuate with the nearest 
approximation to correctness. With a clear under- 
standing of an author's meaning, the compositor 
seldom need go far astray ; and if, having done his 
best, he finds any passage hopelessly involved, or the 
meaning too subtile to be grasped, he has one safe 
resource, — and that is, to follow the copy closely 
and mechanically. Could he have for reference a 
few pages preceding a doubtful passage, the whole 
matter might become perfectly clear ; but, as that is 
out of the question, those pages being scattered as 



124 PENS AND TYPES. 

" takes " in other hands, let the compositor adopt the 
safe course, — FOLLOW COPY, — resting assured 
that no person whose opinion he need value, could 
possibly think of finding fault with him for leaving 
responsibility where it properly belongs. 



CHAPTER VI. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Webster defines Orthography as "the art of 
writing words with the proper letters, according to 
common usage " ; Worcester, as " the art or the 
mode of spelling words." They agree in this : that 
there are some words — two or three thousand, per- 
haps — whose orthography common usage has not 
settled. Prefixed to either Dictionary is a list show- 
ing in double column the most prevalent methods of 
spelling words of doubtful orthography ; thus : 



Abettor 


Abetter 


Escalade 


Scalade 


Germane 


Germain, Gentian 



The first column in the Webster List "presents 
the orthography recognized in the body of [the] 
Dictionary as the preferable one, or that in general 
use." But " when in this list the word in the first 
column is followed by or, as 4 Abatis, or Abattis,' it is 
implied that the second form is nearly, often quite, in 
as good use as the first." When the word in the 
first column differs in meaning from that in the 
second, the word in the first is followed by awrf, as 
'Lunet, and Lunette? both words being in use, but 
applied to different things. 

125 



126 PENS AND TYPES. 

The orthography in the first column of the Worces- 
ter List " is deemed to be well authorized, and in 
most cases preferable ; but with respect to the author- 
ity of that in the right-hand column, there is a great 
diversity. Both orthographies of some of the words 
are right, the words being differently spelled when 
used in different senses " ; as, 4fc Draught, or Draft," 
" Subtle, or Subtile," etc. Sometimes and is used as 
the connective ; as, " Canvas, and Canvass." But 
these double arrangements are of almost no service 
to the proof-reader or compositor, — for the inter- 
changeable words cannot both be inserted in his work. 
If he could use the various spellings, it would save 
the trouble of weighing authorities : we should then 
have such sentences as these : 

The hostler or ostler inveigled or enveigled the horses into 
the stockade or stoccade. Meanwhile the infantry landed at 
the jettee or jetty or jetta or jutty, and at once constructed an 
abatis or abattis or abbatis, as it behooved or behoved them. 

Of these various correct spellings, one must be 
selected to the exclusion of the rest. But there 
being no common usage, no academy to instruct, and 
the copy not being uniform, who or what is to guide 
the printers and proof-readers in making the selec- 
tion ? " For the last eighty years [or more], printers 
have exercised a general control over English orthog- 
raphy," — and we, to carry the general control a little 
farther, propose to set forth for general use one list 
from Webster's first column, exhibiting only one 
single correct spelling, to be used where the Webster 
style prevails; and a similar list from Worcester's 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER). 



127 



first column, to be used where the Worcester style has 
the precedence. Would there were a Smithsonian 
Bureau of the English Language, to render two lists 
unnecessary ; and to give one style to Government 
work, — a style which should have the approval of 
Congress, and to which all printing done by or for 
the various Departments of the United States Gov- 
ernment should be conformed. 



THE WEBSTER LIST. 

[From the column which, he says, " presents the orthography recognized 
in the body of this Dictionary (Wb. Unabridged) as the preferable one, or 
that in general use." But since lie places in his first column various spellings 
of the same words, — e.g. under A, ASdile ; under E % Edife, — vrc nave, in 
accordance with our plan, omitted that spelling which we have observed to 
be neglected by readers who profess to follow Webster. We have inserted in 
brackets some words from the second column which have a different signifi- 
cation from their congeners in the first; also in brackets, some words from 
the defining columns, and such remarks and explanations as may be of service 
to printers and others.] 



Abatis 
Abettor 

[One who abets another 
to commit a crime.] 

Abreuvoir 
Abridgment 
[Accessary 
As used in law.] 

Accessory 

[" In its other senses" 
(than in law); as, "the 
accessories of a pic- 
ture."] 

Account, -ant, etc. 

Accouter, etc. 

Acetimeter 

Ache 

Achieve 

Acknowledgment 

Addible 

Adipocere 

Admittable 

Adopter (Chem.) 



Adulterer, -ess 

Adz 

iEgis 

jEolian 

Aghast 

Agriculturist 

Aid-de-camp 

Ajutage 

Alcaid 

Alchemy . 

Alcoran 

Alkahest 

Allege 

Alleluia 

[If written Halleluiah 
or Hallelujah, fol- 
low copy.] 

Alloy 

Alum 

Almanac 

Ambassador 

Ambergris 

Ambs-ace 

Amend, -ment 



Amice 
Ammoniuret 
Amortize, -ment 
Amphitheater 
Anapest 
Ancient, -ly 
Andiron 
Angiotomy 
Ankle 
Annotto 
Antechamber 
Anterior 
Anti-emetic 
Anti hypnotic 
Apostasy 
Aposteme 

[If written Imposthume, 
follow copy.] 

Apothegm 
Appall 
Appallment 
[Appanage] 
Appareled, -ing 
Appraise, -ed, etc. 



128 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Apprise (to notify) 

Apricot 

Arbitrament 

Arbor 

Archaeology 

Ardor 

Argol 

Armor, -er, etc. 

Arquebuse 

Arrack 

Artisan 

Asafoetida 

Asbestus 

Ascendant 

Ascendency 

Askance 

Askant 

Assuage 

Atheneum 

[If written Athenaeum, 

follow copy.] 

Au^ht 

Author, etc. 

Autocracy 

Autoptical 

Awkward 

Awm 

Ax 

Ay 

[Expressing assent.] 

Aye 

[An affirmative vote.] 



Backshish 

Bade (v.) 

Baldric 

Balister 

Balk 

Baluster 

Bandana 

Bandoleer 

Banderole 

Banyan (Bot.) 



Bans 

[Notice of proposed 
marriage.] 

Barbacan 
Barbecue 
Barberry 
Bark 
Barouche 
Barytone 
Basin 
Bass 
Bass-viol 
Bas-relief 
Bastinade 
Baton 
Bateau 
Battledoor 
Bauble 
Bazaar 
Befall 
Behavior 
Behoove 
Beldam 
Belligerent 
Benedict 
Benumb 
Bell founder, 
[And similar com- 
pounds.] 

Bequeath 

Bergamot 

Berth (Nav.) 

[Bestrown 

p.p. of Bestrew.] 

Betel 

Beveled, -ing 

Bevile (Her.) 

Bezant 

Biasing,-ed, -es, etc. 

Bigoted 

Bilge 

Billiards 

Billingsgate 

Bin 

Binnacle 

Bister 



Blende (Min.) 

Blessed (a.) 

Blithesome, -ly, etc. 

Blomary 

Blouse 

Bodice 

Boil (n.) 

Bombazet 

Bombazine 

Bonnyclabber 

Bourgeois 

Bourse 

Bouse 

Bousy 

Boweled, -ing, etc. 

Bowlder 

Bowsprit 

Brahmin 

Brake (Railways) 

Brazen 

Brazier 

Brier 

Brooch 

Bryony 

Buccaneer 

Buddhism 

Buffet 

Buhrstone 

Bun 

Buncombe 

Bur 

[If written Burr, follow 
copy.] 

Burden, -some 

Burin 

Burned (imp.) 

Burganet 

But-end 

Butt 

Byzantine 



Caboose 
Cacique 
Caddice 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER). 



129 



Caesura 
Cag 

[If written Keg follow 
copy.] 

Caique 

Caisson 

Calash 

Caldron 

Calendar 

Calends 

Caliber 

Calipash 

Calipee 

Calipers 

Caliph 

Calk 

Calligraphy 

Caloyer 

Caltrap 

Calyx 

Camlet 

Camomile 

[If written Chamomile, 
follow copy.] 

Camphene 

Camphor 

Candor 

Canceled, -ing, etc. 

Cannel-coal 

Cannoneer 

Canny 

Canon (Sp.) 

Canyon [Sag.] 

[The Eng. form is the 
better if writing 
or printing English. 
Canon in an English 
book seems pedan- 
tic. J 

Cantaloup 

Cantalever 

Carbine 

Carbineer 

Carapace 

Carat 

Caravansary 



Carcass 

[fn the King Jai Bible, 
ipelhHi carcase* \ 

Cam el i an 
Caroled, -ing, etc. 
Cartography 
Cafik I a fWffcf) 
Casque (helmet) 
Cassava 
Cassimere 

[If written Kerseymere, 
follow copy.] 

Caster 

[One who casts; a cruet; 
a furniture-wheel. J 

Castor 

[A genus of animals; a 
hat; a drug; a heavy 
cloth.] 

Catchup 

Catechise, -er 

Cauliflower 

Causeway 

Caviare 

Caviler, -ed, etc. 

Cayman 

Ceil -ing, -ed 

Center 

Centered 

Centimeter 

Centiped 

Ceroon 

Cess-pool 

Chalcedony 

Chameleon 

Chamois 

Champaign 

[Flat, open country.] 

Champagne (wine) 

Champerty 

Channeled, -ing, etc. 

Chant, -er, -ed, etc. 

Chap 

[Both Wb. and Wor. place 
cMp in the first col- 
umn, and chop in the 
second. This prefer- 



ence of thiip to chop 
harmonist:* orthngra- 

Cmid pronunciation 
lireo lii-luiitis: (J) 
when ckikp lx r. *♦, 
signifying *> to cleave 
or open Ian git ml \ mi I J v 
through tht- eflt-ct of 
neat, cold, dryvna, 
ete. ; a*, 'Heat chAptt 
the russet plain * M ; {%) 
when t\ t., as "The 
hand* chap ", t;u when 
n., as a cleft in the 
earth's surface, or In 
the hand* or feet. ChJlp 
(a youth) was never 
in doubr j while dtapt 
(The Jawa) ntUMt ton 
tluue to be pronounced 
witt i the a as in vAof T ] 

Chase 

Check (n.) 

Checker, -ed, etc. 

Chemist 

Chemistry 

Cherif 

Chestnut 

Chevron 

Chi liol iter 

Chiliometer 

Chine 

Chintz 

Chiseled, -ing 

Chock-full 

Choir 

Chorister 

Choke 

Choose 

Chore 

Cigar 

Ci meter 

Cipher 

Clamor, -ous, etc. 

Clangor 

Clarionet 

Clew 

Clinch 

Clinique 

Clinometer 

Cloak 

Clodpoll 



130 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Clothe, -ed, etc. 

Clough 

Clyster 

Cockswain 

Coeliac 

Cognizor, -zee 

Coif 

Coiffure 

Colander 

Comb 

[Un watered part of val- 
ley, etc.] 

Comfrey 
Complete 
Complexion 

[Comptroller, -ship 

There ia an officer of 
the IL S. Government 
whose official title Is 
'* Comptroller of the 
Currency." The word 
appears in Wb. 2d 
column.] 

Confectionery 

Connection 

CoTVtemporai-y 

Contru-clancG 

Controller, -ship 

Control 

Cony 

Cooly 

Coomb (4 bushels) 

Copaiva 

Copier 

Copse 

Coquette (n.) 

Coranach 

Corbel 

Cosy 

Cot (a hut) 

Cot (a bed) 

Cotillon • 

Councilor 

[A member of a council.] 

Counselor 

[One who gives counsel.] 

Count 



Courtesan 

Courtesy (Law) 

Cozen, -age 

Craunch 

Cray-fish 

Creak (v.) 

Creosote 

Critique 

Crosslet 

Cruet 

Croup 

[Behind the saddle.] 

Crupper 

Cruse (bottle) 

Cucurbit 

Cudgeled, -er, -ing 

Cue 

[Twist of back hair.] 

Cuerpo 

Cuneiform 

Curb (of a well) 

Cursea (imperf.) 

Curtal-ax 

Cutlass 

Cyclopedia 

Cymar 

Cyst 

Czar, -ina 



Dactyl 

Damasken 

Damson 

Dandruff 

Danegelt 

Debarkation 

Debonair, -ly, -ness 

Decrepit 

Defense,-less, etc. 

Deflection 

Deflour 

Delf 

Delphin 



Deltoid 

Demeanor 

Demesne (Law) 

Dentiroster 

Dependent 

Dependence 

Deposit 

Desert (n.) 

Deshabille 

Dessert 

Detecter 

Detortion 

Deuce 

Develop, -ment 

Dexterous 

[But if written Dextrous 
follow copy, to avoid 
subsequent change.] 

Diaeresis 

Diarrhea 

Diarrhetic 

Dike 

Diocese 

Disheveled, -inff, etc. 

Disk * 

Dispatch, -ed, -ing. 

Disseize, -in, -or 

Distention 

Distill 

Distrainor 

Diversely 

Divest, -ed, etc. 

[But in Lam t Devest is 
commonly used; in law 
work, follow copy.] 

Docket 

Doctress 

Dolor, -ous 

Domicile 

Doomsday-book 

Dory 

Dormer-window 

Dote 

Dotage 

Doubloon 

Dowry 

Downfall 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER"). 



131 



Dram 

[A weight; a minute quan- 
tity; a potation.] 

[Drachm 

This word is in second 
column, connected to 
Dram by and. Its 
meaning seems to be 
properly limited, how- 
ever, to an ancient 
Greek coin, and a 
Greek weight (Drach- 
ma).] 

Draff 
Draft 

[1. The act of drawing or 
pulling as by beatstd of 
burden* 

2. Drawing of men for a 
military corps. 

3. An order for payment 
of money; a bill of ex- 
change. 

4. An allowance in weigh- 
ing. 

6. A drawing of lines for 
a plan; a ligure 0> 
scribed on pnper; de- 
Irii'-sir i'jiiL sketch ; plan 
delineated; an out Hue 
to be filled In or cum- 
pletod for composition* 
J 1 1 ;i n ■■■ other tetoM than 
these Jiv**, um? the orig 
h> i; npeJUng, Draught.^ 

[Draught 
(See supra.)] 

Dragoman 

Dribblet 

Drier 

Driveler, -ing, etc. 

Drought 

Dryly 

Duchy 

Duchess 

Dueler, -ing, -ist 

Dullness 

Dungeon 

Dunghill 

Duress 

Dye, etc. (color) 



XL 

Eavesdropper 

Eccentric, -al, etc. 

Economy 

Ecstasy 

Ecstatic 

Ecumenic, -al 

Edematous 

Edile, -ship 

Eloign, -ment 

EtH&rgtnata 

Em balm, -ed, etc. 

Embalm er, -ment 

Embank, -ed, etc. 

Embargo 

Embark, -ed, etc. 

Embarkation 

Embassy 

Embassage 

Embed, -ded, etc. 

Embezzle 

Emblaze 

Emblazon, -ed, etc. 

Embody, -ied, etc. 

Embolden, -ed, etc. 

Emborder, etc. 

Embosom 

If written Imbosom^ fol- 
low copy . 

Emboss, -ed, etc. 

Embowel, -ed, -ing 

Emboweler, -ment 

Embower, -ed, etc. 

Embrace* -ed, etc. 

Embracer, -ment 

Embrasure 

Embrocation 

Embroil, -ed, etc. 

Emerods 

[The Biblical spelling; in 

ordinary work, //ewior- 

rhoids.] 

Emir 

Empale, -ed, etc. 

Emperor 

Empoison 



Empower, -ed, etc. 

Emprise 

Empurple 

Emu 

Enamel ed , -In g, etc. 

Enamor, -ed, -ing 

Encage, -ed, etc. 

Encamp, -ed, etc. 

Enchant 

Enchiseled, -ing 

Encloister 

Encounter, etc. 

Encroach, etc. 

Encumber, -ed, etc. 

Encyclopedia 

Endear 

Endeavor, -ed, etc. 

Endow, etc. 

Endue 

Endure, -ance 

Enforce, -ed, etc. 

Engage, -ed, etc. 

Engender 

Engorge, -ed, etc. 

Engross 

Enhance 

Enigma 

Enjoin, etc. 

Enkindle, -ed, etc. 

Enlarge, etc. 

Enlist 

Enroll 

Enrollment 

Enshrine 

Enshroud 

Ensphere 

Enstamp 

Entail (Arch.) 

Entangle, etc. 

Enterprise 

Enthrone, -ed, etc. 

Entire, -ly, etc. 

Entitle, -ed, etc. 

Entrance, -ed, etc. 

Entrap, -ped, etc. 

Entreat, -ed, etc. 



132 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Entreaty 

Entresol 

Entwine, -ed, etc. 

Envelop (v.) 

Envelope (».) 

Envelopment 

Envenom 

Eolipile 

Epaulet 

Epauleted, -ing 

Equaled, -ing 

Equiangular 

Equivoque 

Era 

Error, etc. 

Escalade 

Escapement 

Escarp ( Fort.) 

[But if written Scarp, 
follow copy.] 

Eschalot 

Escheat 

Escritoire 

Escutcheon 

Estafet 

Esthetics 

Estoppel 

Estrich 

Etiology 

fitui 

[A French word, angli- 
cized as Etwee; fol- 
low copy.] 

Exactor 
Expense 
Exsiccate,-ed,-ing, 

etc. 
Exsiccation 
Exsuccous 
Exudation 
Exude, etc. 
Eyrie 



Faeces 
Fagot,-ed, -ing 



Fairy 
Fakir 
Falchion 
Falcon, -er, -ry 
Fantasy 
Fantastic 
Farthingale 
Fattener 

Favor, -er, -ed, etc. 
Fecal 
Fecula 
Feldspar 
Felly 
Feoffor 
Fervor 
Fetal 
Feticide 
Fetor 
Fetus 

Feud, -al, -atory 
Feudalize, -ism 
Fie 

Filbert 
Filibuster 
Filigree 
Fillibeg 

[But if written Filibeg or 
Phillibeg, follow copy.] 

Finery (a forge) 
Firman 
Fishgig 

Fives [Veterinary] 
Flageolet 
Flavor, -ed, etc. 
Flier 

Floatage {Law) 
Flotsam 
Flour {of grain) 
Flower-dtf-luce 
[If French is wanted, — 
Fleur-de-lis.] 

Fluke (Naut.) 

Fluke (Zool) 

Fogy 

Font (Typog.) 

Forbade 



Foray 
Fosse 
Foundery 

[Very few writers so spell : 
if written Foundry, fol- 
low copy.] 

Franc {coin) 

Frantic 

Frenzy 

Frieze {Arch.) 

Frouzy 

Frumenty 

Frustum 

Fueled, -ing 

Fulfill, -ment 

Fullness 

Further 

[Farther 

When space or time is in- 
dicated.] 

Furtherance 
Furthermore 
Furthest 
[Farthest 

When space or time is in- 
dicated.] 

Fuse (n.) 

[In U. 8. Govt, work Fuze 
is the common usage, 
to distinguish it from 
the verb to Fuse. Fol- 
low copy.] 

Fusil {gun) 
Fusileer 



G. 

Gabardine 
Galiot 
Garish 
Gallias 

[So spelled in the first col- 
umn ; but in the defin- 
ing columns of the 
Dictionary, the « is 
doubled. Follow copy.] 

Gamboled, -ing 
Gamut 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER"). 



133 



Gang (Min.) 
[If written Gangue, fol- 
low copy.) 

Gantlet 

[A military punish- 
ment.] 

Gasteropod 

Gargoyle {Arch.) 

Gauge 

Gault 

Gauntlet 

[A large glove of mail.] 

Gayety 



Gayly 
Gazelle 



Gazelle 

Genet 

Gerfalcon 

Germane 

Germ 

Ghibelline 

Gibe 

Gimbals 

Gimlet 

Girasole 

Girt (v.) 

[Girth (n.)] 
Glair 

Glamour 

Glave 

Gloze 

Gnarled 

Gore 

Good-by 

Good-humor 

Gormand 

Governor 

Graft, -ed 

Grandam 

Granddaughter 

Granite 

Graveled, -mg 

(The l mi graveling 
fthuuld not be 
doubled.] 

Gray, -ish, etc. 

Grenade 

Grenadier 



Greyhound 
Grewsome 
Griffin 
Grisly 

[If written Grizzly, fol- 
low copy.] 

Groats 
Grogram 
Grommet 
Grotesque, -ly 
Groundsel 
Groveler, -ing 
Group (u.) 
Guaranty 

[If written Guarantee, 
follow copy-] 

Guelder-rose 
Guelf 

[If written Guelph, follow 
copy.] 

Guerrilla 

Guilder (coin) 

Guillotine 

Gulf 

Gunwale 

Gurnard 

Gypsy 

Gyrfalcon 

Gyves 

H. 

Hackle 

Hagbut 

Haggard 

Haggess 

Ha5fa 

Haik 

Hake 

Halberd 

Halibut 

Hallelujah 

[But if written Alleluia, 
or Halleluiah, follow 
copy, to avoid "cor- 
recting."] 

Halloo 



Halidom 
Halyard 
Handicraft 
Handiwork 
Handsome 
Handsel 
Handseled 
Harbor, -ed, etc. 
Harebell 
Harebrained 
Harem 
Haricot 
Harrier 
Harry 
Haslet 
Hasheesh 
Hatti-sherif 
Haulm 
Haul 
Haunch 
Hautboy 
Hawser 
Headache 
Hearse 
Hectoliter 
Hectometer 
Hegira 

Height, -en, etc. 
Heinous, -ly, -ness 
Hematite 
Hematology 
Hemistich 
Hemorrhoids 
Heretoch 
Hermit, -age 
Herpetology 
Hexahedron 
Hibernate 
Hiccough 
Hinderance 
[If written Hindrance, 
follow copy. See re- 
mark under Foundery, 
in loco.] 

Hindoo, -ism 
Hip (Pom.) 
Hipped-roof 



134 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Hippogriff 

Hippocras 

Ho 

Hoarhound 

Hockey 

Hotlgt»-podge 

Holiday 

[If written Holy day, 
follow copy. J 

Hollo 

Holster 

Hominy 

Homeopathy 

Homonym 

Honeyed 

Honor, -ed, etc. 

Hoop (v.) 

Hoopoe 

Hornblende 

Horror 

Hostelry 

Hostler 

Hough 

Housewife 

Howdah 

Howlet 

Hummock 

Humor 

Hurra 

Hydrangea 

Hypajthral 

Hyperstene 

Hypotenuse 

Hyssop 



Icicle 

Illness 

Imbibe 

Imbitter 

Imbrue 

Imbue, -ed, -ing 

Immarginate 



Impanel, -ed, -ing 

[Wb. hart also Emnanvted, 
-iiiff, i*tc* p In 11 U first 
column uml^r E. One 
ivjiv i' enough; bat to 
avoid changes in uu- 
thor'ti proof, compos- 
itor had better follow 
copy,] 

Imparlance 
Impassion 
Impeach 
Imperiled 
Implead 
Imposthume 
[See Aposteme.] 
Impoverish 
Imprint 
Incase 
Inclasp 

Inclose, -ure, etc. 
Increase 
Incrust 
Incumbrance 
[But Wb. prefers Encum- 
ber for the verb.] 

Indefeasible 

Indelible 

Indict (Law) 

Indictment 

Indite, -er 

Indocile 

Indoctrinate 

Indorse, -ed, -ing 

Indorser, -ment 

Induce, -ment 

Inferior 

Inferable 

Inflection 

Infold 

Infoliate 

Ingraft, -er, -ment 

Ingrain 

Ingulf 

Inkle 

Innuendo 

Inquire, -er, -y, etc. 

Inscribe 



Inscroll 

Insnare 

Install 

Installment 

Instate 

Instill 

Instructor 

Insure, -ed, -ing 

Insurer, -ance 

Intenable 

Intercessor 

Interior 

Inthrall 

Intrench 

Intrust 

Inure 

Inurement 

Inveigle 

Inventor 

Inwheel 

In wrap 

In wreathe 

Isocheimal 

Ixolite 



Jacobin 
Jaconet 
Jail, -er, etc. 
Jalap 

Jam (Min.) 
Janizary 
Jasmine 
Jaunt, -y, 
Jean 

Jenneting 
Jeremiad 
Jetsam 
Jetty- 
Jeweled 
Jewelry 
Jointress 
Jonquil 
Jostle 
Jowl 



ily 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER*). 



135 



Judgment 

Jupon 

Just 

[A mock encounter on 
horseback.] 



Kaffer 

Kale 

Kayle 

Keelhaul 

Keelson 

Keg 

Kenneled, -ing 

Khan 

Kiln (n.) 

Kilogram 

Kiloliter 

Kilometer 

Knob 

Koran 

Kyanite 



Labeled, -in<j 

Labor, -ed, -mg, etc. 

Lachrymal 

Lac (coin) 

Lackey 

Lacquer (n.) 

Lacquer, -ed, -ing 

Lagoon 

Lambdoidal 

Landau 

Landscape 

Lantern 

Lanyard 

Lapsided 

Larum 



Launch 
Leaven 
Lecher, 
Lecturn 



•y, -ous 



Ledgement 

[Sic; the retention of 
e after g seems some- 
what remarkable.] 

Ledger 

Leger-line 

Leggin 

Lemming 

Lettuce 

Leveled, -ing, -er 

Libeled, -ing, etc. 

License 

Lickerish 

Licorice 

Lief 

Lilac 

Linguiform 

Linnsean 

Linseed 

Linstock 

Liter 

Lithontriptic 

Llama (Zobl.) 

Loadstar, -stone 

Loath (a.) 

Lode (Min.) 

Lodgment 

Logogriph 

Longiroster 

Louver 

Lower 

Luff 

Lunet 

[A little moon, or satel- 
lite. Obsolete.] 

Lunette 

[A detached bastion, 

etc.] 

Lunge 

Lustring 

Lye 



M. 

Macaw 

Maccaboy 

Maggoty 



Maim 

FMavhem, Law.] 
Mill {prefix) 

[Here, In Wb„ first col- 
umn, :4|i[m-m[-> "Mall," 
followed by "or 
BIiiul"; bill, ftince 
Maul ulao uppnirs In 
first column, both n* 
lumu lint] vit(i, Wv omit 
AT* fttf, us not preferable 
lo MMdw] 

Malkin 

Mamaluke 

Mamma 

Mandatary (n.) 

Manikin 

Maneuver 

Mantel (Arch.) 

Mantel-piece 

Marc (coin) 

Magaron 

Marquee 

Marque (letter of) 

Marquess 

[Till of late, marquis was 
the usual spelling, but 
it is now to a great ex- 
tent superseded by 
marquess, except in 
the foreign title.— 
Smart.] 

Marshal 
Marshaled, -ing 
Martin (Ornith.) 
Martinet (Naut.) 
Martingale 
Marveled, -ing, etc. 
Mark 
Maslin 
Mastic 
Matrice 

[If written Matrix, follow 
copy.] 

Mattress 

Mauger 

Maul (n. and v.) 

Mayhem (Law) 

Meager, -ly, etc. 

Merchandise 



136 



PENS AND TYPES. 



: 



Meter 

Mileage 

Milleped 

Milligram 

MSlliRter 

Millimeter 

Milrea 

Misbehavior 

Miscall 

Misdemeanor 

Misspell 

M is spend 

Misspent 

M isstate 

Mistletoe 

Miter, -ed 

Mizzen 

Mi /./I i' 

Moccasin 

Mode (Gram.) 

Mocha-stone 

Modeled, -ing 

Modillion 

Mohammedan 

Mohawk 

Molasses 

Mold 

Molt 

Moneyed 

Mongrel 

Moresque 

Morris 

Mortgagor '{Law) 

Mortgager 

Mosque 

Mosquito 

Mullein 

Multiped 

Mummery 

Murder, etc. 

Murky 

Murrhine 

Muscadel 

Muscle (a shellfish) 

[If written Mussel t follow 
copy.) 



Musket 


Ottar (of roses) 


Mustache 


Outrageous 




Oxide 


n. 


Oyes 


Nankeen 




Narwal 




NaughE 


P. 


Negotiate, -or, etc. 


Packet 


N etgli bor , -f ng , etc . 


Painim 


Net (a.) 


Palanquin 


Neb (Om.) 


Palestra 


Niter 


Palet 


Noblesa 


Palmiped 


[If written Noblesse 


Pari ad a 


follow copy,] 


Pander 


Nomads 


Pun d ore 


Nnmbles 


Pan dour 


Nonesuch 


Panel (Law) 


Novitiate 


Paneled, -ing 


Nylghau 


Pantograph 




Papoose 




Paralyze 


0. 


Parceled, -ing 


Oaf 


Parcenary 


Oeher 


Parlor 


Octahedron 


Parol (a*) 


Oetoslyle 


Parquet 


Odalisque 


Parsnip 


Odor 


Parnikcet 


Offense 


Partible 


Olio 


Partisan 


Omber 


Pasha 


Omer 


Pasha] ic 


Oolong 


Pask 


Opaque 


Patrol (».) 


Opo balsam 


Paver 


Orach 


Pawl 


Orang-outang 


[Peaked 


Orchestra 


Wm i inert this word &a 


Oriel 


of the first cohintii, be, 


Oiillamb 


chuht Pici-eti (hi Wb, 
lir.it col.) lnix iJitjiki' 


Orison 


ritms not applicable to 


Osier 


Peaked*] 


Osprey 


Pean 


Otolite 


Peart 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER*). 



137 



Pedicel 

Peddler 

Pedobaptist 

Pemmican 

Penciled, -ing 

Pennant 

Pentahedral 

Peony 

Periled, -ing 

Peroxide 

Persimmon 

Persistence 

Pewit (Orn.) 

Phantasm 

Phantom 

Phenomenon 

Phenix 

Phial 

(But if written Vied, fol- 
low copy.] 

Philter, -ed 

Phthisic 

Piaster 

Picked 

Picket 

Pie 

Piebald 

Piepoudre 

Pimento 

Pimpernel 

Pinchers 

Pistoled, -ing 

Placard 

Plaice (Ichth.) 

Plain 

[Plane, in some senses.] 

Plane-sailing 

Plaster 

Plait (v.) 

Plat(n.) 

Plethron 

Pliers 

Plow 

Plumber 



Pluviometer 

Point-device 

Poise 

Polacca 

Pole-ax 

Poltroon 

Polyhedron, -drous 

Pol'yglot (n.) 

Polyp 

Pommel 

Pommeled, -ing 

Ponton 

Pony 

Poniard 

Porgy {Ichth.) 

Porpoise 

Portray 

Porteress 

Possessor 

Postilion 

Potato 

Potsherd 

Powter (0m.) 

Pozzolana 

Practice (v.) 

Praemunire 

Pranonien 

Predial 

Premise 

Pretense 

Pretermit 

Pretor 

Profane 

Protector 

Programme 

Protoxide 

Prunella 

Pumpkin 

Puppet 

Purblind 

Pun* 

Purslane 

Putrefy 

Pygmy 

Pyx 



Q 

Quadroon 

Quarantine 

Quarrel (an arrow) 

Qua/reled, -ing 

Quartet 

Quaterfoil 

Quay, -age 

Questor 

Quinsy 

Quintain 

Quintet 

Quoin 



Rabbet (Carp.) 

Rabbi 

Raccoon 

Raddock (Orn.) 

Ramadan 

Rancor, -ous, -ly 

Ransom 

Rare (adj.) 

Rarefy 

Raspberry 

Rattan 

Raveled, -ing 

Raven (j)lu?uler) 

Raze, -ed, -ing 

Rasure 

Real (coin) 

Rearward 

Recall 

Recompense 

Reconnoiter 

Redoubt 

Referable 

Reflection 

Re-let 

Reindeer 

Re-enforce 

Re-install, -ment 

Relic 

Remiped 



138 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Renard 

Rencounter 

Rennet 

Replier 

Re posit 

Resin 

Rosin 

[The resin left, after dis* 
tilling off the vol utile 
oils from the different 
fipecice of turpentine,] 

Resistance, etc. 

Restive, -ly, -ncas 

Retch tto rmnt) 

Reveled, -lag, -er 

Reverie 

Ribbon 

Reversible 

Rigor, -ous, etc, 

Riak 

Rivaled, 4ng 

Riveted, -ing 

Roc (0m.) 

Rodomontade 

Rondeau 

Ronyon 

Roquelatftt 

Rotunda 

Route 

Ruble (coin) 

Ruche 

Rummage 

Rumor, etc. 

Ryo 



Sabian 

Saber, -ed, etc, 

Sackbut 

Sainfoin 

Sal am 

Salep 

Salic 

Saltpeter 

Samester 

Sandaled 



Saudarae 

Sand ever 

Sanskrit 

Sapajo 

Sapodilla 

Sarcenet 

Sat 

Satchel 

Satinet 

Saner-kraut 

Savanna 

Savior 

[Saviour 

Wo insert ihte as of first 
column, it being in 
univrraiil use when re- 
ferring to Christ*] 

Savor 

S<;allop, -ed, -ing 

Seath 

Scepter, -ed 

Scheiif 

[Preferring this form to 
Cherif, we insert it 
here, Both * rollings 
uppear in Wb, first col- 
u 111 u.J 

Schist 

Schorl 

Sciagraphy 

Scion 

Scirrhosity 

Seirrhua 

Scissors 

Sconce 

Scot-free 

Scow 

Scrawny 

Scythe 

Seamstress 

Sear 

Secretaryship 

Sedlitz 

Seethe 

Seignior 

Seigniorage, -ory, 

Seine 

Seizin 



Seleniuret 

Sel lender 

Selvage 

Sentinel 

Sentry 

Sepawn 

Sepulcher 

Sequin 

Sergeant 

Set (n.) 

Sevennight 

Shad 

Shah 

Shawm 

Shampoo 

Shard 

Sheathe (v*) 

Sheik 

Sherbet 

Sherry 

Shm-I-shalM 

[But if written Shifty, 
shallot follow copy* J 

Shore (»•) 

Shorl 

Shoveled, -er; -ing 

Show 

Shrillness 

Shriveled, -ing 

Shuttlecock 

Shyly, -ness 

Sibyl 

Sidewi.se 

Silicious 

Sillabub 

Simoom 

Siphon 

Siren 

Sirloin 

Si nip 

Sizar 

Skefti 

Skeptic 

Skillful, -ly ? -ness 

Skill-less 

Skull (craiiiMH) 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WEBSTER). 



139 



Slabber 


Strengthener 


Sleight 


Strew 


Slyly, -ness 


Strop (n.) 


Smallness 


Stupefy 


Smolder 


Sty 


Smooth (v. and a.) 


Style 


Snapped (imp.) 


Styptic 


Sniveler, -ing 


Subpoena 


Socage 


Subtile (thin) 


Socle 


Subtle (artful) 


Solan-goose (n.) 


Successor 


Solder, etc. 


Succor 


Soliped 


Suite 


Solvable 


Suitor 


Somber 


Sulphureted 


Somersault 


Sumac 


Sonneteer 


Superior 


Soothe (v.) 


Suretyship 


TSorel] 
Sorrel 


Surname 


Surprise, etc. 


Souchong 


Survivor, -ship 


Spa 


Swainmote 


Spelt (n.)* 


Swale (v.) 


Specter 


Swap 


Spew 


Swart (adj.) 


Spinach 


Swathe (bandage) 


Spinel 


Swiple 


Spiri tous 


Swob, -ber, etc. 


[Spirituous is the more 


[But if written Swab, 


common form. Fol- 


Swabber ; etc., follow 


low copy.] 


copy.] 


Spite 

Splendor 

Sponge 

Sprite 

Spirt 


Swollen 

Syenite 

Symploce 

Synonym 

Syphilis 


Spunk 




Staddle 


T. 


Stanch 


Tabard 


Stationery (n.) 


Tabbinet 


Steadfast 


Tabor, etc. 


Steelyard 


Taffeta 


Stillness 


[If written Taffety, fol- 


Stockade 


low copy.] 


Story (a floor) 


Taffrail 


Strait (n.) 


Tailage 



Talc 

Tallness 

Tambour 

Tambourine 

Tarantula 

Tarpaulin 

Tasseled, -ing 

Tasses 

Taut (Nav.) 

Tawny 

Tease 

Teasel 

Teetotal 

Tenable 

Tenor 

Tenuirosters 

Terror 

Tetrahedron 

Tetrastich 

Theater 

Thole 

Thorp 

Thralldom 

Thrash 

Threshold 

Throe (n.) 

Ticking (n.) 

Tidbit 

Tie (n. and v.) 

Tier 

Tierce 

Tiger 

Tincal 

Tithe 

Toll (v. t) 

Tollbooth 

Ton (the weight) 

[Tun (the cask)] 

Tonnage 

Tormentor 

Tourmaline 

Towel in g 

Trammeled, -ing 

Tranquilize 

Transferable 

Transference 



140 

Transship, -merit 

Tmpan (<* smir ^ 

Traveler, ~ed, -nig 

Traverse 

Travesty 

Treadle 

Tiebuehet 

Treenail 

Trestle 

Trigger 

Trevet 

Tricoto* 

Trihedral 

ttoi 

Trousers 

Troweled 

Truckle-bed 

Tryst 

Tumbrel 

Tumor 

Tunneled, -ing 

Tunjuois 

Turnip 

Turnsole 

Tutenag 

Tweedle 

Twibd 

Tymbal 

Tyro 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Veil 
Vedette 

Vender 

mut Vender, as cor 

L relative of Vendee.] 

Venomous 

Veranda 

Verderer 

Verdigris 

Vermin 

Verst 

Vertebra 

Vervain 

Vicious, -ly f -neas 

Victualed, -er f -ing 

Vigor, -ous, etc. 

VifW a , . 

flint In feudal law. 
1 f trn spelled n«t»»^ 

follow copy.] 
Villainy, -ous 
Viae 
Visitor 
Visor 
Vitiate 
Vizier 
Volcano 



Umber 

Unbiased 

Uuboweled 

(And others o* tfaeiatnc 

Unroll 
Until 

Vaivode 

Mf written W**g*** 
cnpyO 

Valise 

Valor, -ous, -ously 

Vantbrace 

Vapor 

Vat 



Wadsett 
Wagon 
Waive 

Wale (n.) 

Walrus 

Warranter 

[In law. Warrantor.} 

Warrior 

Wavwhoop 

Waucht 

Waul {as a ea£) 

UYar fo. Naut>) 

Wear («.) 

Weasand 

Welsh 

Whanff 

Whelk (n.) 

Whipplctree 

Whippoorwill 



Whisky 

Whoop 
Whooping-cough 

f If written JfroMf- 
L "c*«ffft, he careful to 
follow cnpy, " e 
have know a some 
trouble tO he caused 
by a change of he 
initial in alphabeti- 
cal tabular work 
fromlio^iiitnh, »hips, 
etfcl , , 

Whortleberry 
Widgeon 

willful, -iy» * nes5 

Windlass 
Wintcry 

Mf written innfftf- 
follow copy.] 

Wiry 
Witch-eta 

Witvli-hazcl 

Withe 
"Wivem 

Wizard 

Wizen 

Woe 

Woful 

Wondrous 

Woodbine 

Woolen, -ette. 

Wo^hiper, -ed, etc 

Wrack (to rack) 

Wye 

[If written Y, 
copy.] 

Y. 
Yataghan 
Yaup 
Yawl (n.) 
Yelk 
Yttria, -um 



Z. 
Zaffer 
Zinc 
Zinciferous 

Zonnar 
Zymometer 



, etc. 
ollow 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER"). 141 



THE WORCESTER LIST. 

{The following vocabulary exhibits the orthography apparently deemed 
preferable by Worcester. It will, we believe, be found very convenient in 
offices where the Worcester style is in favor, — as the preceding list will prove 
to be where the Webster style is in vogue. Any remarks which we have 
inserted, and a few additional words, are In brackets.] 



Aam 
Abatis 
Abbey 
Abetter 

[In a good sense ; nearly 
or quite obsolete.] 

Abettor 

[Law. One who abets an 
unlawful act.] 

Abnormal 
Abreuvoir 
Abridgment 
Accessary 
[When used in Law.] 
Accessory {Art.) 
Accountant 
Acetimeter 
Ache 
Achieve 

Acknowledgment 
-Aeronycal 
jVddible 
Adipocere 
Adjudgment 
Admittible 
Adopter 

[One who adopts, or as- 
sumes as one's own.] 

[Adapter 

Tube used in Chemistry.] 

Adscititious 

Adulteress 

Advertise 

Advoutry 

Advowee 

Advowson 

Adze 



MoWc 

Affector 

Affeer 

Affiliate 

Affiliation 

Afraid 

Aghast 

Agriculturist 

Aide-de-camp 

Aisle (church) 

Ajutage 

Alchemical 

Alchemist 

Alchemy 

Alcoran 

Alexipharmic 

Alkahest 

Alkali 

Allege 

Allocution 

Alloy 

Almacantar 

Almanac 

Almonry 

Alnager 

Alum 

Amassment 

Ambassador 

Ambergris 

Ambs-ace 

Amercement 

Amiability 

Amice 

Amortise 

Anademe 

Ananas 

Anapest 

Anapestic 



Anbury 

Ancestral 

Ancient 

Ancientry 

Andiron 

Anemone 

Angiography 

Angiology 

Angiotomy 

Ankle 

Annotto 

Antechamber 

Antelope 

Antiemetic 

Apanage 

Apostasy 

Aposteme 

[If written Imposthume, 
follow copy, j 

Apothegm 

Appall 

Appalment 

Appraise 

Appraisement 

Appraiser 

Apprise 

Appurtenance 

Apricot 

Arbitrament 

Archaeological 

Archaeology 

Archduchess 

Archil 

Argol 

Arquebuse 

Arrack 

Artisan 

Arvel 



142 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Asbestos 

Ascendency 

Ascendent 

Askance 

Askant 

Askew 

Assafoetida 

Assize 

Assizer 

Assuage 

Athenaeum 

Auger 

[Augur 

A soothsayer.] 

Aught 

Autocracy 

Avoirdupois 

Awkward 

Awn 

Axe 



Baccalaureate 

Bachelor 

Bade, from bid 

Balance 

Baldrick 

Balk 

Ballister 

Baluster 

Bandanna 

Bandoleer 

Bandore 

Bandrol 

Banian 

Banns 

Barbacan 

Barbecue 

Barberry 

Bark 

Barouche 

Baryta 

Barytone 

Basin 

Bass (Mus.) 

Bass-viol 



Bastinado 

Bateau 

Battledoor 

Bawble 

Bazaar 

Beadle 

Beaver 

Befall 

Behoove 

Bellflower 

Belligerent 

Bellman 

Bellmetal 

Bellwether 

Benumb 

Bequeath 

Bergamot 

Bergander 

Berth (in ship) 

Bestrew 

[Bestrewn 

p. p. of Bestrew.] 

Betel 

Bevel 

Bezant 

Biassed 

Biestings 

Bigoted 

Bilge 

Billiards 

Billingsgate 

Binnacle 

Bistre 

Bivouac 

Bizantine 

Blanch 

Blende (Min.) 

Blithely 

Blitheness 

Blithesome 

Blomary 

Blouse 

Bodice 

Boil (a tumor) 

Bolt 

Bombard 



Bombast 

Bombazette 

Bombazine 

Borage 

Bourgeois 

Bourn 

Bourse 

Bouse 

Bousy 

Bowlder 

Bowsprit 

Brakeman 

Bramin 

Brawl 

Brazen 

Brazier 

Brazil 

Brier 

Brokerage 

Bronze 

Brooch 

Brunette 

Bryony 

Buccaneer 

Buffalo 

Buhrstone 

Bulimy 

Bumblebee 

Bunn 

Bunyon 

Burden 

Burdensome 

Burganet 

Burin 

Burlesque 

Burr 

Buzz 

By (n.) 

C. 

Cabob 

Cacique 

Caesura 

Calcareous 

Caldron 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER). 



143 



Calendar 

Calends 

Caliber (Gun) 

[Calibre 

Generally so spelled 
when used in a figur- 
ative sense; as " a 
mind of inferior cali- 
bre " ; and in this 
sense retains the 
French pron. Ka le 
bur.] 

Calipers 

Caliph 

Calk 

Calligraphy 

Calotte 

Caloyer 

Caltrop 

Calyx 

Cameo 

Camlet 

Camomile 

[If written Chamomile, 
follow copy.] 

Camphor 

Cannel (-coal) 

Cannoneer 

Canoe 

Cantilever 

Canvas 



Capriole 

Car 

Carabine 

Carabineer 

Carat 

Caravansary 

Caravel 

Caraway 



rtpture.] 
carcass 
Carle 
Carnelian 

§3* 

Cartridge 



Cassada 

Cassimere 

[If spelled Kerseymere, 
follow copy.] 

Cassowary 
[Cast] 
Caste, class 
Castellan 
Caster 

[One who casts; a cruet; 
a furniture- wheel. J 

[Castor 

A genus of animals; a 
hat ; a drug.] 

Castlery 

Castrel 

Catchpoll 

Catchup 

Catechise 

Catherine 

Cauliflower 

Causeway 

Cavazion (Arch.) 

Caviare 

Caw 

Cayman 

Cedilla 

Ceiling 

Celt 

Celtic 

Centiped 

Cess 

Chalcedony 

Chaldron 

Chalice 

Chameleon 

Chamois 

Champaign 

[Flat, open country,— 
Deut 11:30.] 

[Champagne, wine] 
Champerty 
Chant 
•Chap 
[See remark on this 

word, in Wb. List, 

ante.] 



Chaps 
Char 

[A small job. 

So spelled in England, 
and in Departments 
at Washington, where 
" charwomen " are em- 
ployed. But — 

Chore 

Is the common orthog 
raphy in the United 
States, — and if so 
written, follow copy.] 

Chase 

Chastely 

Chasteness 

Check 

Checker 

Cheer 

Chemical 

Chemist 

Chemistry 

Chestnut 

Chiliahedron 

dullness 

Chimb 

Chintz 

Chloride 

Choir 

Choke 

Choose 

Chorister 

Chyle 

Chylifactive 

Cider 

Cigar 

Cimeter 

Cipher 

Clam (v.) 

Clarinet 

Cleat 

Clew 

Clinch 

Cloak 

Clodpoll 

Cloff 

Clothe 

Clothes 



r 



144 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Cluck 

Clyster 

Cobbler 

Cocoa 

Coddle 

Coeliac 

Coif 

Coiffure 

Coke 

Colander 

Colic 

College 

Colliery 

Colter 

Comfrey 

Commandery 

Commissariat 

Compatible 

Complete 

Concordat 

Confectioneiy 

Confidant (w.) 

Congeal able 

Connection 

Connective 

Consecrator 

Contemporary 

Co ntru- dance 

Contributory 

Control 

Controllable 

Controller 

[Comptroller 

2d column. See Wb. 
list.l 

Conversable 

Cony 

Cony-burrow 

Coomb (4 bushels) 

Copier 

Coping 

Copse 

Coquette (n.) 

Coranach 

Corbel 

Cordovan 



Corpse 


D. 


Correlative 


Dactyl 


Cosey 
Cot 


Daily 
Daisied 


Cotillon 


Damaskeen (y.) 


Counsellor 


Damson 


[One who gives advice/ 


1 Dandruff 


[Councillor 


Danegelt 
Danh 


A member of a council.] T^awdlc 


Courant 


Dearn 


Courtesan 


Debarkation 


Courtesy 


Debonair 


[Curtesy (Law)"] 
Covin 


Decoy 
Decrepit 


Covinous 


Defence 


Cozen 


Defier 


Cozenage 
Craunch 


Deflection 


Deflour 


Crawfish 


Delft 


Creak (v.) 


Delphine 


Crier 


Deltoid 


Croslet 


Demesne 


Crowd 


Demarcation 


Crowfoot 


Democrat 


Cruet 


Denizen 


Crumb 


Dependant (».) 


Crusade 


Dependence 


Cruse (cruet) 


Dependent (a.) 


Crystal 


Deposit 


Cucurbit 


Desert (n.) 


Cue 


Desolater 


Cuerpo 


Despatch 


Cuish 
Cuneiform 


[Dispatch also appears In 
Wor. 1st column. Fol- 
low copy.] 


Cupel 


Dessert (w.) 


Curb 


Detecter 


Curb-stone 


Detorsion 


Curtain 


Detractor 


Cutlass 


Develop 


Cyclopaedia 


Development 


Cyst 


Devest 


Cysted 


Dexterous 


Czar 


[If written Dextrous fol- 




low copy.] 




Diadron 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER). 146 



Diaeresis 

Diarrhoea 

Dike 

Dime 

Diocese 

Disburden 

Discount 

Disfranchise 

Disfranchisement 

Dishabille 

Disinthrall 

Disk 

Disseize 

Disseizin 

Disseizor 

Dissolvable 

Distention 

Distil 

Distrainor 

Diversely 

Divest 

Docket 

Doctress 

Dodecahedron 

Doggerel 

Domicile 

Doomsday-book 

Dory 

Dote 

Doubloon 

Dowry 

Downfall 

Drachm 

[Properly limited to the 
Greek coin or weight.] 

Dram 

[A denomination in 
apothecaries' and 
avoirdupois weight; 
a small Quantity; a 
potation.] 

Dragoman 
Draught 

[This, the original and 
proper orthography, 
should be retained in 
all senses other than 



the five mentioned 
under Draft.] 

Draft 

[1. Act of drawing or 
pulling. 

2. A body of men 
drawn for or from a 
military organiza- 
tion. 

8. An order by which 
one person draws on 
another for money; 
a] ho tbu money so 
drawn. 

4. An allowance in 
weighing. 

5. The drawing of lines 
for a plan; the plan 
so drawn.] 

Dreadnaught 

Driblet 

Drier 

Drought 

Dryly 

Dryness 

Duchess 

Duchy 

Dulness 

Dungeon 

Dunghill 

Duress 

Dye {color) 

Dyeing (coloring) 



R 

Eavesdropper 

Eccentric 

Echelon 

Economics 

Ecstasy 

Ecstatic 

Ecumenical 

Edile 

Eke 

Embalm 

Embank 

Embankment 

Embargo 

Embark 

Embarkation 



Embase 

Embassy 

Embed 

Embedded 

Embezzle 

Embezzlement 

Emblazon 

Embody 

Embolden 

Emborder 

Embosk 

Embosom 

Emboss 

Embowel 

Embower 

Embrasure 

Empale 

Empanel 

[This orthography is 
recommended, (Wb. 
Juts Kmpaneted in 
first column.) There 
itre *a many correct 
ways of spelling this 
word, thiit u man 
who would gel it 
wrong should be 
very ingenious.] 

Empoison 

Empower 

Empress 

Encage 

Encenia 

Enchant 

Enchase 

Encircle 

Encroach 

Encumber 

Encumbrance 

Enclyclop«dia 

Endamage 

Endear 

Endow 

Endue 

Enfeeble 

Enfeoff 

Enfranchise 

Engender 

Engorge 



146 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Enhance 

Enigtna 

Enjoin 

Eniartl 

Enlarge 

Enlighten 

Enlist 

Enlumine 

Enroll 

Enrolment 

Enshrine 

Entail 

Entangle 

Enterprise 

Enthrone 

En thy memo 

Entice 

Entire 

Entirety 

Entitle 

Entomb 

Entrance (u.) 

Entrap 

Entreat 

Envelop (v.) 

Envelopment 

En] i pile 

Epaulet 

Epigraph 

Equerry 

Equiangular 

Equivoke 

Era 

Eremite 

Escalade 

Eschalot 

Escritoire 

Escutcheon 

Efitafette 

[Esthetic] 

Esthetics 

Estoppel 

Etiology 

Exactor 

Expense 

Exsanguious 



Exsect 

Exsiccate 

Exsiccation 

Exs iecative 

Exsuceous 

Extrinsical 

Exudation 

Exude 

Eyry 



Ffieces 

Fagot 

Fairy 

Fakir 

Falchion 

Falcon 

Fantasy 

Farther 

Farthest 

[Present tendency Ib, to 
employ farther and 
farthest in imHciit' 
iug apace or lime; 
in other MUMflj fnr 
ther a&d/tarfActf,] 

Farthingale 

Fatten er 

Fearnaught 

Fecal 

Felly 

Felon 

Felspar 

Fermi e 

[Ferule 

This word la In eecand 
column; but aa its 
a I g n i 11 c a t f o n id 
wholly distinct from 
ferrule* It should 
have place here.] 

Feud 

Feudal 

Feudality 

Feudatory 

Feuillemorte 

Fie 

Filandcrs 



Filbert 

Filigrane 

Filigree 

Fillfbeg 

Filly 

Finery {a forge) 

Finnan 

Fizgig 

Flageolet 

Fleam 

Flier 

Flotage 

Flotsam 

Flour (meal) 

Fleur-de-Ils 

Flugelman 

Fluke 

Fluoride 

Foetus 

Forestall 

Foretell 

Fnrray 

Forte '(strong mfc) 

Fosse 

Found ery 

[But If written Foun- 
dry, follow copy-] 

Franc (coin) 

Frenetic 

Frenzy 

Frieze 

Frigate 

Frit 

Frizzle 

Frowzy 

Frumentaceons 

Frumenty 

Frustum 

Fuel 

Fulfil 

Fulfilment 

Fulness 

Furlough 

Furl her 

Furthest 

[Sua Farthest.] 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER). 



147 



Fusee 
Fusileer 
Fuze (n.) 

G. 

Gabardine 

Galiot 

Gallipot 

Galoche 

Gamut 

Gangue (in ore) 

Gantlet 

[A military punish- 
ment.] 

Garish 

Garreteer 

Gauge 

Gauger 

Gault 

Gauntlet (glove) 

Gaye.ty 



Gayly 
Gazelle 



Gazelle 

Gear 

Gelatine 

Genet 

Gerfalcon 

Germ 

Ghastly 

Ghibelline 

Ghyll (ravine) 

Gibbensh 

Gibe 

Giglot 

Gimlet 

Gimmal 

Girasole 

Girth 

Glair 

Glave 

Glazier 

Glede 

Gloar 

Gloze 

Glue 



Gluey 

Gnarled 

Gneiss 

Good-by 

Gore 

Gourmand 

Gormandize 

Governante 

Graft 

Grandam 

Granddaughter 

Granite 

Grasshopper 

Gray 

Greeze (a step) 

Grenade 

Grenadier 

Greyhound 

Griffin 

Grizzled 

Grocer 

Grogram 

Grotesque 

Groundsill 

Group 

Guarantee 

Guild 

Guilder (coin) 

Guillotine 

Gulf 

Gunwale 

Gurnet 

Gypsy 

Gyre 

Gyve 

H. 

Haggard 

Haggess 

Ha-ha 

Hake 

Halberd 

Hale (healthy) 

Halibut 

Halyards 



Halloo 

Hame 

Handicraftsman 

Handiwork 

Hards 

Harebell 

Harebrained 

Harem 

Harrier 

Harslet 

Hatchel 

Haul (to drag) 

Haum 

Haunch 

Haust (cough) 

Hautboy 

Havoc 

Hawser 

Hazel 

Headache 

Hearse 

Heartache 

Height 

Heighten 

Heinous 

Hemistich 

Hemorrhoids 

Heptamerede 

Herpetology 

Hexahedron 

Hibernate 

Hibernation 

Hiccough 

Hinderance 

[If written Hindrance* 
follow copy. In one 
of the largest printing* 
offices in the world, an 
effort waa made n few 

?earu since to get the e 
nto Dexterous, Found- 
fry, and H.ncteram'o 
fstvle of Wb. and 
Whr.\\ but ao mnrli 
trouhlp ensued, — pre* 

Nil! I : L ' ■ 1 > fr>M[] out -Ei tl- 

orthographers, — that 
compositors and proof- 
readers were erelong 
instructed to leave the 
e out. Follow copy. J 



148 



PENS AND TYPES, 



Hip (v). 

Hip (n). 

Hippocras 

Hodp?- podge 

Hoiueii 

Holiday 

Holster 

Ho rainy 

II onion yrae 

Hone 

Honeyed 

Hoot 

Horde 

Horehound 

Hornblende 

Hostler 

Household 

Housewife 

Howlet 

Hub 

Hurrah 

Hydrangea 

Hypothenuse 

L 
Icicle 
Illness 
Imbitter 
Imbound 
Imbox 
Imbrue 
Impair 
Imparlance 
Impassion 
Implead 
Impost!! ume 

['* This seem* ... to have 
beea written erroae- 
owly for apuaftmc. 1 * — 
Johnson. Follow copy, 
whether spelled apaa- 
temp, apostitme, impOM 
tem, impost hu wf, or 
impost war, — nay other 
Orthography miplit poa* 
albly be incorrect.] 

Impoverish 
Incase 



In el asp 


Inure 


Incloistcr 


Inurement 


Inclose 


Invalid (7*,) 


Inelosure 


Inveigle 


I neon dene able 


Inventor 


In er ease 


Inwheel 


Inerust 


In wrap 


Indefeasible 


In wreathe 


Indelible 


Isle 


Indict 




Indictment 


J. 


Indite 


Jackal 


Inditer 


Jacobin 


Indocile 


Jag 


Indorsable 
Indorse 


Jagghery 


Indorsement 


Jailer 


Indorser 


Jalap 


Inferrible 


Jamb (h.) 


Inflection 


Janizary 


Infold 


Janty 


In foliate 


Jasmine 


Ingraft 


Jaunt 


Ingraftment 


Jelly 


Ingrain 


Jenneting 


Ingulf 


Jetty 


Innuendo 


Jewellery 


Inquire 
Inquirer 


[Thus in 1st column, tis 


M the more rejpiJarly 
formed word"; but 


Inquiry 


jewelry Is the more 


Insnare 
Install 


c in iu u. Follow 

Jiffy 
Jingle 


Instalment 


Instil 


Jointress 


Instructor 


Jole 


Insurance 


[If writtea jott>l t follow 


Insure 


copy.l 


I usurer 
In tenable 


Jon q tulle 
Judgment 


Interlace 


Julep 


Interplead 


Junket 
Just (n.) 
Jostle 


Interpleader 
Inthrall 


Intrinsical 


[If written wttle, compos 
it or »ud proofreader 


Intrust 


lui'l }'v\u r fulltiw c«pv, 


Intwine 


to Pjive the trouble arid 

t. ^t,. ...... ..t ii mi... ilU- i 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER). 



149 



Kale 

Kamsin 

Kayle 

Keelhaul 

Keelson 

Keg 

Khan 

Knapsack 

Knell 

L. 

Lackey 

Lacquer 

Lair 

Lambdoidal 

Lance 

Landscape 

Landsman 

Lantern 

Lanyard 

Launch 

Laundress 

Laureate 

Lavender 

Lea {a plain) 

Leach 

Leaven 

Ledger 

Lettuce 

License 

Lickerish 

Licorice 

Lief 

Lilac 

Lily 

Linguiform 

Liniment 

[An embrocation.] 

fLinament 

(Lint, etc.n 

Lintstock 

Litharge 

Llama {animal) 

Loadstar 

Loadstone 



Loath (a.) 

Loathe (v.) 

Lode (a vein) 

Lodgement 

Lower 

Luff 

Luke 

Lustring 

Lye (from ashes) 

M. 

Maggoty 
Maim 

El ayhem (Law)] 
aize 
Maleadministration 
Malecontent 
Malefeasance 
Malepractice 
Maltreat 
Malkin 
Mall 

Malanders 
Mameluke 
Mandarin 
Mandatary 
Mandrel 
Manifestable 
Manikin 
Manoeuvre 
Mantle 
Mark 

Marque (license) 
Marquee 
Marquis 
Marshal 
Marten 
Martingale 
Mask 
Maslin 
Mastic 
Matins 
Mattress 



Mediaeval 



Meliorate 

[If written ameliorate, 
follow copy.] 

Menagerie 

Merchandise 

Mere (a pool) 

Metre 

Mew 

Mewl 

Mileage 

Milleped 

Millrea 

Miscall 

Mizzle 

Misspell 

Misspend 

Misy (Min.) 

Mistletoe 

Mitre 

Mizzen 

Moccason 

Mocha-stone 

Modillion 

Molasses 

Moneyed 

Mongrel 

Monodrame 

Mood 

Moresque 

Morion 

Mortgageor 

Mosque 

Mosquito 

Mould 

Moult 

Mulch 

Mullin 

Multiped 

Mummery 

Murder 

Murderous 

Murky 

Murrhine 

Muscle 

[Animal tissue.] 



150 



PENS AND TYPES. 



[Mussel 


Painim 


(A shell-Ash.)] 


Palanquin 


Musket 


Palette 


Mustache 


Palmiped 


Myth 


Pandore 
Panel 


N. 


Pansy 




Pantagraph 


Nankeen 


Pappoose 


Naught 


Parallelopiped 


Negotiate 


Paralyze 


Net (a., clear) 


Parcenary 
Parol (a.) 


Nib 


Nobless 


Paroquet 


Nombles 


Parral 


Novitiate 


Parsnip 


Nozle 


Partisan 


Nuisance 


Patin 




Patrol 


O. 


Paver 


Pawl 


Oblique 
Octahedron 


Pedler 


Pedlery 


Offence 


Peep 


Offuscate 


Penance 


Olio 


Penniless 


Omer 


Pentahedral 


Opaque 
Orach 


Pentahedron 


Pentile 


Orison 


Peony 
Percn 


Osier 


Osmazome 


Persimmon 


Osprey 


Persistence 


Ottar 


Pewit 


[If written Attar, follow Phantasm 


copy.] 


Phantom 


Outrageous 


Phenomenon 


Oxidate 


Phial 


Oxidation 


[If written Vial, follow 


Oxide 


copy.] 


Oxidize 


Philter 


Oyes 


Phlegm 




Phoenix 


P. 


Phthisic 


Pacha 


[Piked 


Packet 


Ending in a point.] 



Picked 

[Spruce ; smartly or fop- 
pishly dressed.] 

Picket 

[Piquet 

A game at cards.] 

Picturesque 

Pie 

Piebald 

Pimento 

Pincers 

Placard 

Plain 

[A level, open field. ] 

[Plane 

So written in science and 
the arts.] 

Plane-sailing 

Plaster 

Plat 

Plethora 

Pleurisy 

Pliers 

Plough 

Ploughman 

Ploughshare 

Plumber 

Plumiped 

Pluviameter 

Poise 

Poltroon 

Polyanthus 

Polyhedral 

Polyhedron 

Pomade 

Pommel 

Pontoon 

Pony 

Porpoise 

Portray 

Portress 

Postilion 

Potato 

Pottage 

Practise (v.) 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER). 



151 



Praemunire 


Rattan 


Restiffness 


Premise 


Raven (prey) 


[If written restiveness, 


Pretence 


Raze 


follow copy.] 


Preterite 


Razure 


Retch (to vomit) 


Pretor 


Real (coin) 


Reverie 


Prison-base 


Rear 


[If written r every, fol- 


Probate 


Rearmouse 


low copy.] 


Profane 


Rearward 


Reversible 


Protector 


Recall 


Rhomb 


Prothonotaryship 


Recognizable 


TRhumb (Nav.)] 
Ribbon 


Prunello 


Recognizance 


Pumpkin 


Recognize 


Rider 


[Puisne (Law) 


Recognizee 


Rinse 


Thus written as a tech 


Recognizor 


Risk 


nical word.] 


Recompense 


Riveted 


Puny 

Pupillary 

Purblind 


Reconnoitre 


Robbin 


Redoubt 


{"Robin (Orn.)] 
Rodomontade 


Redoubtable 


Purlin 


Reenforcement 


Roquelaure 


Purr 


Referable 


Route (course) 


Purslain 


Reflection 


Rummage 


Pursy 


Reflective 


Runnet 


Putrefy 


Reglet 


Rye 


Pygmean 


Reindeer 




Pygmy 


Reinstall 


8. 


Pyx 


Relic 






Renard 


Sabianism 


Q. 


[If written Reynard, 


Sag 


follow copy.] 


Saic 


Quarantine 


Rennet 


Sainfoin 


Quartet 


Replier 


Salic 


Quatercousin 


Reposit 


Saltcellar 


Quay (a mole) 


Resin 


Sandarach 


Quinsy 


[This is the scientific 


Sandiver 


Quintain 


term for the "in- 
spissated exudations 
of certain families of 


Sanitary 


Quintal 


Sarcenet 


Quitter 


plants."] 


Sat 


Quoit 


Rosin 


Satchel 




[The name of the com- 


Satinet 




monest resin in use, 


Savin 


R. 


"when employed in 
a solid state for or- 


Ruppoon 


Saviour 


Raillery 
Ransom 
Rarefy 
Raspberry 


dinary purposes."] 
Resistance 
Respite 
Restiff 
[If written restive, fol- 


[WTujo the Redeemer la 

mennt T the « should 
be retained* WfcfWfe 

l.-i-v. lint*' under th.fr 
word nays that emir, 
favor, and hoiuir aro 


Ratafia 


low copy.] 


derived directly from 



152 


PENS AND TYPES. 


the Lntln, whereas 
there is no classical 
Latin word corn* 


Sesspool 

[If written ctstpool, fol 


Sley (a reed) 
Sluice 


spu ti ding to the Ureek 


Juw copy.] 


Slyly 


sa&iour **Gwritp.] 


Sevennight 


Slyness 


[Savior 

This orthography Is 


Shad 


Smallness 


Shard 


Smirk 


proper when a sacred 
meaning la not at- 


Shark (v.) 


Smooth (u.) 


tached to the word. J 


[Bat Ahirk Eh more com- 


Soap 


Scallop 


moo, follow copy. J 


Socage 


Scath 


Shawm 


Socle 


Scenery 


Sheathe (u.) 


Solan 


Sceptic 


Sheer (pure) 


Solder 


Sceptical 


Sheik 


Soldier 


Scepticism 


Shemitic 


Soliped 


Schist 


Sherbet 


Solitaire 


Schistose 


Sherry 


Solvable 


Scholium 


Shorling 


Somerset 


Schorl 


Show 


Sonneteer 


Sciagraphy 


Showbrcad 


Soothe (v.) 


Seiomaehy 


Shrillness 


Sorrel 


Scion 


Shroud 


Souse 


Seirrhosity 


Shuttlecock 


Spa 


Scirrhous [aJ] 


Shyly 


Spicknel 


Scirrhus [ra.] 


Shyness 


Spinach 


Scissors 


Sienite 


Spinel 


Sconce 


Silieious 


Splice 


Scotfrce 


Sill 


Sponge 


Scow 


Sillabub 


Spongy 
Spright 


Screen 


Simar 


Scrofula 


Siphon 


Spricrhtful 


Scythe 


Siren 


Spunk 


Seamstress 


Sirloin 


Spurt 


Sear 


Sirocco 


Stable 


Scarce 


Sirup 


Staddle 


Secretaryship 


Sit (to incubate) 


Stanch 


Seethe 


Site 


Stationery (».) 


Seignior 


Sizar 


Steadfast 


Seine (a net) 
Seizin 


Size (glue) 

Skate 


Steelyard 
Sterile 


Sel lenders 


Skein 


Stillness 


Selvage 


Skilful 


Stockade 


Sentinel 


Skulk 


Strait (n.) 


Sentry 


Skull 


Strap 


Sequin 


Slabber 


Strengthener 


Sergeant 


Slake (to quench) 


Strew 


Sergeantry 


Sleight (n) 


Stupefy 



ORTHOGRAPHY (WORCESTER). 153 



Sty 
Style 

Subtile (thin) 
Subtle (sly) 
Subtract 
Subtraction 
Suit 
Suitor 
Sulky (n.) 
Sulphuretted 
Sumach 
Suretyship 
Surname 
Surprise 
Surreptitious 
Survivor 
Survivorship 
Swale 
Sward 
Swath (n.) 
Sweepstakes 
Swipple 
Swop 

[If written swap, follow 
copy.] 

Sycamore 

Sylvan 

Synonyme 

Syphilis 

Systematize 

T. 

Tabard 

Taffety 

Taffrail 

Taillage 

Talc (a stone) 

Tallness 

Talmud 

Tambour 

Tambourine 

Tarpauling 

Tartan 

Tassel 

Tawny 

Tease 



Teazle 

Tenable 

Terrier 

Tether 

Tetrastich 

Theodolite 

Thraldom 

Thrash 

Threshold 

Throe (a pang) 

Thyine (wood) 

Thyme 

Ticking 

Tidbit 

Tie 

Tier (a row) 

Tierce 

Tiger 

Tincal 

Tint 

Tiny 

Tippler 

Tithe 

Toilet 

Toll (to allure) 

Tollbooth 

Ton 

[Tun 

{Tun is the usual or. 
thography when a 
large cask or wine 
measure [262 gallons] 
is meant; Ton when 
a weight of 20cwt., 
the space in a ship, 
or a measure of tim- 
ber is meant.— 
Brande.)] 

Tonnage 

Tormentor 

Touchy 

Tourmaline 

Trance 

Tranquillity 

Tranquillize 

Transferable 

Transferrence 

Treadle 



Treenail 

Trellis 

Trentals 

Trestle 

Trevet 

Trousers 

Truckle-bed 

Tumbrel 

Turkey 

Turkois 

Turnip 

Turnsole 

Tutenag 

Tweedle 

Twibil 

Tymbal 

Tyro 

U. 

Umbles 

Unbias 

Unbiassed 

Unbigoted 

Unroll 

Until 



Vaivode 
Vales (money) 
Valise 
Vantbrace 
Vat (a vessel) 
Vaudevil 
Vavasor 
Veil (cover) 
Vender 

[Vendor (Law)"} 
Veneer 
Venomous 
Verdigris 
Vermilion 
Vermin 
Verst 
Vertebre 

[If written Vertebra, 
follow copy.] 



154 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Vervain 


Waul 


Vice (a screw) 


Wear (v.) 


Vicious 


Wear (w.) 


Villain 


Weasand 


Villanous 


Welsh 


Villany 


Whang 


Visitatorial 


Whelk 


Visitor 


Whippletree 


Visor 
Vitiate 


Whippoorwill 
Whiskey 


Vizier 


Whitleather 


Volcano 


Whoop 




Whooping-cough 


W. 


Widgeon 
Wilfil 


Wagon 


Waif 


Windlass 


Waive (to defer) 

Wale 

Walrus 


Wintry 

Wiry 

Witch-elm 


Warranter 


With (n.) 


[Warrantor {Law)'] Withal 


War-whoop 


Wizard 



Woe 

Woful 

Wondrous 

Woodbine 

Woodchuck 

Woollen 

Wreathe (v.) 

Wreck 

Wriggle 



Yawl 

Yearn 

Yeast 

Yelk 

Yerk 

Yew 

Z. 

Zaffre 

Zinc 

Zymology 



There is a large class of words ending either in 
able or ible, amounting to more than sixteen hundred. 
For these we know of no general rule which can be 
given, that would readily indicate the proper ter- 
mination. In practice, writers and printers, with 
rare exceptions, are obliged at times to depend on 
something besides memory to secure correctness ; 
and if the dictionary is not at hand, the wrong ter- 
mination may — as in fact it often does — get into 
print. So excellent a work as " The American First 
Class Book " prints an extract from Webster's Plym- 
outh oration thus : 

If any practices exist, contrary to the principles of justice 
and humanity, within the reach of our laws or our influence, 
we are inexcusable if we do not exert ourselves to restrain and 
abolish them. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



155 



And in a periodical which is sent broadcast over 
the United States, occurs the following paragraph 
(April 24, 1888), copied from a report made by 
Henry Clay in 1838: 

That authors and inventors have, according to the practice 
among civilized nations, a property in the respective produc- 
tions of their genius is incontestable, etc. 

We append below, for convenient reference, a cat- 
alogue of the words referred to, including (1) those 
in present use; (2) those that are rare; and (3) 
the obsolete. The latter often occur in reprints, and 
are sometimes resuscitated or galvanized for a present 
purpose, — as, for instance, in a recent popular novel, 
of wide circulation, there occurs three or more times, 
the word "ineluctable," denoted by Webster as obso- 
lete. We may have omitted some words that should 
have been inserted, but believe we have accomplished 
our object within very negligible limits of error. 

A word in parenthesis indicates a various mode of 
spelling the word immediately preceding. 

WORDS ENDING IN ABLE. 



Abatable 

Abdicable 

Abolishable 

Abominable 

Abrogable 

Absolvable 

Absorbable 

Abusable 

Accentuable 

Acceptable 

Acclimatable 

Accomplishable 

Accordable 

Acceptable 

Accountable 



Accusable 

Achievable 

Acidifiable 

Acquirable 

Actable 

Actionable 

Adaptable 

Addable 

(Addible) 

Adjustable 

Administrable 

Admirable 

Admittable 

(Admittible) 

Adoptable 



Adorable 

Advantageable 

Advisable 

Affable 

Affiiliable 

Affirmable 

Aggrandizable 

Agitable 

Agreeable 

Alienable 

AJkalifiable 

Allegeable 

Allowable 

Alterable 

Amassable 



156 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Ameliorable 

Amenable 

Amendable 

Amiable 

Amicable 

Amusable 

Analyzable 

Anchorable 

Annihilable 

Answerable 

Appealable 

Appeasable 

Appliable 

Applicable 

Appointable 

Appreciable 

Approachable 

Appropriable 

Approvable 

Arable 

Arbitrable 

Arguable 

Argumentable 

Ascertainable 

Ascribable 

Aspectable 

Assailable 

Assaultable 

Assessable 

Assignable 

Assimilable 

Associable 

Atonable 

Attachable 

Attackable 

Attainable 

Attemptable 

Attractable 

Attributable 

Augmentable 

Autnorizable 

Available 

Avoidable 

Avouchable 

Avowable 

Bailable 



Bankable 

Batable 

Bearable 

Beggable 

Believable 

Bendable 

Bequeathable 

Bewailable 

Blamable 

Boardable 

Boatable 

Bounceable 

Breakable 

Breathable 

Calcinable 

Calculable 

Capable 

Carriable 

Causable 

Censurable 

Challengeable 

Changeable 

Chargeable 

Charitable 

Chastisable 

Cheatable 

Circulable 

Circumnavigable 

Circumscribable 

Citable 

Civilizable 

Claimable 

Classifiable 

Clean sable 

Cleavable 

Clergyable 

Climbable 

Coagulable 

Cogitable 

Cognizable 

CoUatable 

Colorable 

Combatable 

Comfortable 

Commandable 

Commeasurable 



Commemorable 

Commendable 

Commensurable 

Commonable 

Communicable 

Computable 

Companionable 

Comparable 

Compassable 

Compellable 

Compilable 

Comportable 

Compoundable 

Computable 

Concealable 

Conceivable 

Concordable 

Condemnable 

Condensable 

Conferrable 

Confinable 

Confirmable 

Confiscable 

Conformable 

Confusable 

Confutable 

Congeable 

Congealable 

Conjecturable 

Conquerable 

Conscionable 

Conservable 

Considerable 

Consolable 

Constrainable 

Consumable 

Containable 

Contaminable 

Conterminable 

Contestable 

Continuable 

Contradictable 

Contributable 

Contrivable 

Controllable 

Conversable 





ORTHOGRAPHY. 


Conveyable 


Determinable 


Eatable 


Countable 


Detestable 


Effable 


Countermandable 


Devisable 


Effaceable 


Covetable 


Diggable 
Dilatable 


Electrifiable 


Creatable 


Electrolyzable 
Emendable 


Creditable 


Diminishable 


Criticisable 


Disagreeable 
Disallowable 


Employable 
Endable 


Crura m able 


Crystal liz able 
Culpable 


Disciplinable 


Endurable 


Discommendable 


Enforceable 


Cultivable 
Cultivatable 


Disconformable 
Discountable 


(Enforcible) 
Englishable 


Culturable 


Discourageable 


Enjoyable 


Curable 


Discoverable 


Enticeable 


Customable 


Discreditable 


Enunciable 


Damageable 


Disenable 


Enviable 


Debatable 


Dishonorable 


Equable 


Deceivable 


Disintegrable 


Equitable 


Decidable 


Dispensable 


Eradicable 


Decipherable 


Displaceable 


Erasable 


Declarable 


Disposable 


Erectable 


Declinable 


Disproportionable 


Escapable 


Decomposable 


Disprovable 


Escheatable 


Decompoundable 


Dispunishable 


Estimable 


Decreeable 


Disputable 


Evaporable 


Definable 


Disreputable 


Examinable 


Deflagrable 


Disserviceable 


Exceptionable 


Delectable 


Dissociable 


Exchangeable 
Excisable 


Deliverable 


Dissolvable 


Deludable 


Distillable 


Excitable 


Demandable 


Distinguishable 


Excommunicable 


Demisable 


Distramable 


Exculpable 


Demonstrable 


Distributable 


Excusable 


Deniable 


Diversifiable 


Execrable 


Denominable 


Dividable 


Exemplifiable 


Denotable 


Divorceable 


Exercisable 


Deplorable 
Deposable 


(Divorcible) 
Doubtable 


(Exercisible) 
Exhalable 


Deprecable 


Dowable 


Exorable 


Deprivable 


Drainable 


Expectable 


Derivable 


Dramatizable 


Expellable 


Describable 


Drawable 


Expiable 


Designable 


Drinkable 


Expirable 


Desirable 


Dupable 


Explainable 


Despicable 


Durable 


Explicable 


Detectable 


Dutiable 


Exportable 



157 



158 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Extinguishable 

Extirpable 

Ex tractable 

(Extractible) 

Lxtricable 

Exu viable 

Falsifiable 

Farraable 

Fashionable 

Fathomable 

Favorable 

Fellable 

Fermentable 

Figurable 

Finable 

Fixable 

Fordable 

Foreknowable 

Forfeitable 

Forgivable 

Formidable 

Fortifiable 

Framable 

Friable 

Fundable 

Furbishable 

Gainable 

Gaugeable 

Gelable 

Generable 

Generalizable 

Governable 

Grantable 

Graspable 

Guardable 

Guerdonable 

Guessable 

Guidable 

Habitable 

Hammerable 

Handleable 

Hatable 

Hazardable 

Healable 

Heriotable 

Heritable 



Homageable 

Honorable 

Hospitable 

Husbandable 

Hybridizable 

Identifiable 

Illapsable 

II laudable 

Illimitable 

Illuminable 

lllustrable 

Imaginable 

Imi table 

Immalleable 

Immeasurable 

Immedicable 

Immemorable 

Immensurable 

Immersable 

(Immersible) 

Immitigable 

Immovable 

Immutable 

Impalpable 

Impassable 

Impassionable 

Impeachable 

Impeccable 

Impenetrable 

Imperforate 

Imperishable 

Impenneable 

Imperturbable 

Imperviable 

Implacable 

Im pliable 

Imponderable 

Importable 

Imposable 

Impracticable 

Impregnable 

Impressionable 

Impreventable 

Improbable 

Improvable 

Impugnable 



Imputable 
Inaffable 
Inalienable 
Inamovable 
Inappealable 
Inapplicable 
* Inappreciable 
Inapproachable 
Inarable 
Incalculable 
Incapable 
Incensurable 
Incinei^able 
Inclinable 
Incoagulable 
Incogi table 
Incognizable 
Incommensurable 
Incommunicable 
Incommutable 
Incomparable 
Incompensable 
Incompliable 
Incomputable 
Inconcealable 
Inconceivable 
Incondensable 
Incongealable 
Inconsiderable 
Inconsolable 
Inconsumable 
Incontestable 
Incontrollable 
Increasable 
Incrystallizable 
Inculpable 
Incurable 
Indecimable 
Indecipherable 
Indeclinable 
Indecomposable . 
Indefatigable 
Indefinable 
Indelectable 
Indemonstrable 
Indeprecable 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



159 



Indeprivable 

Indescribable 

Indesirable 

Indeterminable 

Indictable 

Indirainishable 

Indisciplinable 

Indiscoverable 

Indispensable 

Indisputable 

Indissolvable 

Indistinguishable 

Indomitable 

Indorsable 

Indubitable 

Ineffable 

Ineffaceable 

Inequitable 

Ineradicable 

Inestimable 

Inevitable 

Inexcitable 

Inexcusable 

Inexecutable 

Inexorable 

Inexpiable 

Inexplicable 

Inexplorable 

Inexpugnable 

Inexsuperable 

Inexterminable 

Inextinguishable 

Inextirpable 

Inextricable 

Inferable 

(Inferrible) 

Inflammable 

Inflatable 

Ingelable 

lngenerable 

Inhabitable 

Inheritable 

Inhospitable 

lnimaginable 

Inimitable 

Inimitable 



Innavigable 

Innumerable 

Inobservable 

Inoculable 

Inoxidizable 

Inquirable 

Insanable 

Insatiable 

Insaturable 

Inscribable 

Inscrutable 

Insecable 

Inseparable 

Inseverable 

Insolvable 

Inspirable 

Instable 

Insufferable 

Insul table 

Insuperable 

Insupportable 

Insupposable 

Insurable 

Insurmountable 

Intastable 

Intenable 

Interchangeable 

Intereomniunicable 

Interminable 

Interpolate 

Interpretable 

Intestable 

Intolerable 

Intractable 

Intransmutable 

Invaluable 

Invariable 

Investigate 

Inviolable 

Invitrifiable 

Invulnerable 

Irrebuttable 

Irreclaimable 

Irrecognizable 

Irreconcilable 

Irrecordable 



Irrecoverable 

Irrecusable 

Irredeemable 

Irrefragable 

Irrefutable 

Irrejectable 

Irrelicvable 

Irremeable 

Iiremediable 

Irremovable 

Irremunerable 

Irreparable 

Irrepealable 

Irrepleviable 

Irreplevisable 

Irrepresentable 

Irreproachable 

Irreprovable 

IiTesolvable 

Irrespirable 

Irresuseitable 

Irretraceable 

Irretrievable 

Irreturnable 

Irrevealable 

Irrevocable 

Irrevokable 

Irritable 

Isolable 

Issuable 

Judicable 

Justiciable 

Justifiable 

Knittable 

Knowable 

Lacerable 

Lamentable 

Laminable 

Lapsable 

Laudable 

Laughable 

Leamable 

Leasable 

Lendable 

Leviable 

Levigable 



160 


PENS AND TYPES 




Liable 


Negotiable 


Placable 


Licensable 


Nonexeommunicabl e 


Plantable 


Li f table 


Notable 


Pleadable 


Likable 


Noticeable 


Pleasurable 


Limit able 


Nourishable 


Pliable 


Liquable 


Numerable 


Plowable 


Liqu enable 


Objectionable 


Poi&onable 


Litigable 


Obligable 


Folarizable 


Loanable 


Observable 


Polishable 


Lodgcable 


Obtainable 


Polysyllable 


Lo sable 


Offerable 


Ponderable 


Lovable 


Opposable 
Ordain able 


Portable 


Magnitiable 


Potable 


Man able 


Oiderable 


Powerable 


Mainpernable 


Organ izable 


Practicable 


Maintainable 


Ongi liable 


Precipitable 


Malleable 


Overcanable 
Oxidable 


Predetermitiable 


Manageable 


Prodieable 


Manifestable 


Oxidizable 


Preferable 


(Manifestible) 


Oxvgenizable 


Preparable 


Marketable 


Palatable 


Presentable 


Marriageable 


Palpable 


Preservable 


Mastic able 


Pardonable 


Prestable 


Measurable 


Partahle 


Presumable 


Me die able 


(Partible) 


Preventable 


Memorable 


Passable 


Probable 


Mend able 


Pasturable 


Procurable 


Mensurable 


Patentable 


Profitable 


Meat ion able 


Pawnable 


Frognosticable 


Merchantable 


Payable 


Prolongable 


Miserable 


Peaceable 


Pronounceable 


Misinterpretable 


Peecable 


Propagable 


Mistakable 


Penetrable 


Proportionable 


Miligable 


Perceivable 


Proratable 


Mixable 


Perdurable 


Prosecutable 


Modifiable 


Perfomiable 


Prolrudable 


M old able 


Perishable 


Provable 


Mullifiable 


Permeable 


Pro v ok able 


Mootabie 


Permutable 


Puhlishable 


Mount able 


Perpet liable 


Pulverable 


Movable 


Personable 


Pulverizable 


Mu Hi pliable 


Perspirable 


Punishable 


Multiplieable 


Persuadable 


Purchasable 


Mutable 


Pk'turable 


Pur suable 


Namable 


Fiereeable 


Quadvable 


Navigable 


Pitiable 


Qualifiable 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



161 



Quenchable 

Questionable 

Quotable 

Raisable 

Ratable 



eachable 
Readable 
Realizable 
Reasonable 
Rebukable 
Recallable 
Receivable 
Reclaimable 
Recognizable 
Recommendable 
Reconcilable 
Recoverable 
Rectifiable 
Redeemable 
Redemandable 
Redoubtable 
Reexaminable 
Referable 
(Referrible) 
Refusable 
Refutable 
Regrettable 
Reissuable 
Resectable 
Re lax able 
Releasable 
Reliable 
Relievable 
Relishable 
Remarkable 
Remediable 
Removable 
Remunerable 
Renderable 
Renewable 
Rentable 
Reobtainable 
Repairable 
Reparable 
Repayable 



Repealable 

Repleviable 

Representable 

Reproachable 

Reprovable 

Repudiable 

Reputable 

Rescindable 

Rescuable 

Resolvable 

Respectable 

Respirable 

Restorable 

Restrainable 

Resumable 

Resuscitable 

Retainable 

Retractable 

(Retractible) 

Retrievable 

Returnable 

Revealable 

Revengeable 

Reviewable 

Revivable 

Revocable 

Rewardable 

Rollable 

Ruinable 

Rulable 

Sailable 

Salable 

Salifiable 

Salvable 

Sanable 

Saponifiable 

Satisfiable 

Saturable 

Savable 

Scalable 

Searchable 

Seasonable 

Securable 

Seizable 

Separable 

Sequestrable 



Servable 

Serviceable 

Shapable 

Shiftable 

Sizable 

Sociable 

Solvable 

Sortable 

Soundable 

Spoilable 

Squeezable 

Statable 

Statutable 

Suable 

Subconformable 

Sublimable 

Subscribable 

Succorable 

Sufferable 

Suitable 

Superserviceable 

Supportable 

Supposable 

Surmountable 

Surpassable 

Sustainable 

Tamable 

Tannable 

Tastable 

Taxable 

Teachable 

Tellable 

Temperable 

Temptable 

Tenable 

Tenantable 

Terminable 

Testable 

Tillable 

Tithable 

Tolerable 

Tollable ' 

Torturable 

Touchable 

Traceable 

Tractable 





PENS AND TYPES, 


Trainable 


Uncontrollable 


Unspeakable 


Transferable 


Uncustomable 


Unstable 


(Transferrible) 
Transformable 


Uncountable 


Unsuitable 


Undeniable 


Unutterable 


Translatable 


Undivinable 


Unwarrantable 


Transmeatable 


Unexceptionable 


Unwedgeable 
Usable 


Tranamutable 


Unextinguishable 


Transpirable 


Unfashionable 


Utterable 


Transportable 


Unfathomable 


Valuable 


Transposable 


Unfavorable 


Vanquishable 


Traver sable 


Unforgetable 


Vapor able 


Treasonable 


Ungovernable 


V:lj writable 


Treatable 


Unimpeachable 
Unliable 


Variable 


Triable 


Veerable 


Triturable 


Unknowable 


Vegetable 


Tunable 


Unmalleable 


Venerable 


Ulcerable 


Unmerchantable 


Verifiable 


Unacceptable 


Unmenfcable 


Veritable 


Unaccountable 


Unmistakable 


Viable 


Unad vis able 


Unpassable 


Vindicabla 


Unagreeable 


Unpeaceable 


Viol able 


Unaidable 


Un pec rable 


Visitable 


Unamlable 


Unprofitable 


Vitrifiable 


Unanswerable 


Unquestionable 


Voidable 


Unappealable 


Unreasonable 


Volatilizable 


Unapproachable 


Unreconcilable 


Voyageable 


Unaskable 


Unreliable 


Vulnerable 


Unavoidable 


Unrebukable 


Warrantable 


Uncharitable 


Un reckon able 


Washable 


Uncleanable 


Unreprovable] 


Wearable 


Uucom eatable 


Unsalable 


Weigh able 


Uncomfortable 


Unsearchable 


Welclablo 


Uncommun i cable 


Unseasonable 


Wieldable 


Uncon f ormabl e 


Unsociable 


Workable 


Unconscionable 






WORDS 


ENDING IN "ABLE"; RAEE. 


Accomptable tor &b*.) Commiserable 


Dubitable 


Accommodable 


Complainable 


Educable 


Accustom able 


Defendable 


Effluviable 


B apt iz able 


Despisable 


Emulable 


Burnable 


Destroyable 


En treatable 


Borable 


Discontinuable 


Eq ui parable 


Carriageable 
Catchable 


Dissipable 
Don able 


Errable 


Esteemable 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



163 



Executable 

Expugnable 

Frustrable 

Gatherable 

Gettable 

Hereditable 

Illaqueable 

Imageable 

Im palatable 

Imperceivable 

Impersuadable 

Incicurable 

Inequable 

Innominable 

Manducable 

Marriable 

Matchable 

Medicinable 

Meltable 

Mockable 



Pacificable 

Pregnable 

Quittable 

Razorable 

Recuperable 

Refragable 

Regaraable 

Regulable 

Rememberable 

Replantable 

Replevisable 

Repugnable 

Scrutable 

Smokable 

Speakable 

Strangleable 

Subduable 

Superable 

Suspectable 

Tractable 



Thinkable 

Transpassable 

Unalienable 

Unculpable 

Understandable 

Unforeseeable 

Unhabitable 

Unlimi table 

Unmakable 

Unmeasurable 

Unmovable 

Unscrutable 

Untractable 

Unvoyageable 

Walkable 

Weariable 

Wishable 

Worshipable 

Woundable 

Yieldable 



WORDS ENDING IN "ABLE"; OBSOLETE. 



Abhominable 

Acetable 

Accompanable 

Accomptable (or rare. 

Acquaintable 

Animable 

Aptable 

Battable 

Behoovable 

Bowable 

Chanceable 

Colliquable 

Circumstantiable 

Combinable 

Companable 

Companiable 

Compassionable 

Compensable 

Conciliable 

Consortable 

Conspectable 

Conusable 

Convenable 



Counselable 
Covenable 
Creable 
.) Defatigable 
Delightable 
Dependable 
Depredable 
Destinable 
Devitable 
Disable 

Disadyantageable 
Discomfortable 
Discordable 
Discriminable 
Disfavorable 
Dispraisable 
Disprofi table 
Doctrinable 
Domable 
Dreadable 
Earable 
Effrayable 
Endamageable 



Eterminable 

Exceedable 

Excoriable 

Excreable 

Excruciable 

Exoptable 

Exuperable 

Fatigable 

Fittable 

Flammable 

Foilable 

Frequentable 

Grievable 

Guildable 

Gustable 

Illacerable 

Uleviable 

Immatchable 

Immixable 

Impacable 

Impardonable 

Imperscrutable 

Impetrable 



164 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Impierceable 

Improfitable 

Impro}>ortionable 

Inaidable 

Inalterable 

In ami able 

Incessable 

In charitable 

Incoraformable 

Inconscionable 

Incremable 

lndividable 

Indomable 

Indoraptable 

Ineluctable 

lnenarrable 

Inerrable 

Inexhalable 

Inexplainable 

Inexuperable * 

Infashionable 

Infatigable 

Informidable 

Ingus table 

Injudicable 

Inopinable 

Insociable 

Insuitable 

Intricable 

Inutterable 

Irrecuperable 

Irreputable 

Iterable 

Jaculable 

Justiceable 

Lachrymable 

Leisurable 

Makable 

Maniable 

Markable 

Mercable 

Merciable 

Meri table 

Mingleable 

Mirable 

Miscarriageable 



Moderable 

Modificable 

Moltable 

Narrable 

Oathable 

Objectable 

Occasionable 

Operable 

Opinable 

Optable 

Ordinable 

Overturnable 

Painable 

Parable 

Parallel able 

Perceable 

Perflable 

Perspicable 

Postable 

Praisable 

Replevisable 

Resemblable 

Rowable 

Sacrificable 

Screable 

Scribable 

Semblable 

Spirable 

Strainable 

Suspicable 

Trafficable 

Transmeable 

Troublable 

Unappliable 

Unapplicable 

Uncapable 

Unconceivable 

Uncontestable 

Uncounselable 

Uncovenable 

Uncreditable 

Uncurable 

Undefatigable 

Undepartable 

Undertakable 

Undestroyable 



Undeterminable 

Undisputable 

Undoubtable 

Undubitable 

Undwellable 

Unequalable 

Unevitable 

Unexcusable 

Unextricable 

Unfailable 

Unframable 

Unhospitable 

Unimi table 

Unmasterable 

Unnumerable 

Unpenetrable 

Unperishable 

Unplacable 

Unpracticable 

Unprizable 

Unquarrelable 

Unremovable 

Unreproaehable 

Unreputable 

Unsatiable 

Unseparable 

Unshakable 

Unsightable 

Unsucceedable 

Unsufferable 

Unsupportable 

Unswayable 

Untenable 

Untriumphable 

Untrowable 

Unvaluable 

Unvariable 

Unvulnerable 

Vailable 

Vengeable 

Veniable 

Versable 

Vituperable 

Volitable 

Wainable 

Warhable 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



165 



WORDS ENDING IN IBLE. 



Abhorrible 

Accendible 

Accessible 

Addible 

(Addable) 

Adducible 

Admissible 

Adustible 

Apprehensible 

Ascendible 

Audible 

Bipartible 

Circumscriptible 

Classible 

Coctible 

Coercible 

Cognoscible 

Conesible 

Collectible 

Combustible 

Compactible 

Compatible 

Comprehensible 

Compressible 

Concrescible 

Conducible 

Conduct! ble 

Confluxible 

Contemptible 

Contractible 

Controvertible 

Conversible 

Convertible 

Convincible 

Correctable 

Corrigible 

Corrodible 

Corrosible 

Corruptible 

Credible 

Decoctible 

Deducible 

Deductible 



Defeasible 

Defectible 

Defensible 

Descendible 

Destructible 

Diffusible 

Digestible 

Discernible 

Dissectible 

Distensible 

Distractible 

Divertible 

Divestible 

Divisible 

Divorcible 



Jocible 
Edible 
Educible 
Effectible 
Effervescible 
Eligible 
Eludible 
Enforcible 
(Enforceable) 
Evincible 
Exercisible 



exhaustible 
Expansible 
Expressible 
Extendible 
Extensible 
Extractible 
(Extractable) 
Fallible 
Feasible 
Fencible 
Fermentescible 
Flexible 
Fluxible 
Forcible 
Frangible 



Fungible 

Fusible 

Gullible 

Horrible 

Ignitible 

Illegible 

Immersible 

(Immersable) 

Immiscible 

Impartible 

Impassible 

Impedible 

Imperceptible 

Impersuasible 

Implausible 

Impossible 

Imprescriptible 

lmputrescible 

Inaccessible 

Inadmissible 

Inapprehensible 

Inaudible 

Incircumscriptible 

Incoercible 

Incombustible 

Incommiscible 

Incompatible 

Incomprehensible 

Incompressible 

Inconcussible 

Incontrovertible 

Inconvertible 

Incon vincible 

Incorrigible 

Incorrodible 

Incorruptible 

Incredible 

Indefeasible 

Indefectible 

Indefensible 

Indelible 

Indeprehensible 



166 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Indestructible 

Indigestible 

Indiscernible 

Indiscerptible 

Indivisible 

Indocible 

Inducible 

Ineffervescible 

Ineligible 

Ineludible 

Inevasible 

Inexhaustible 

Inexpansible 

Inexpressible 

Infallible 

Infeasible 

Inferrible 

(Inferable) 

Inflexible 

Infrangible 

Infusible 

Inscriptible 

Insensible 

Instructive 

Insuppressible 

Insusceptible 

Intactible 

Intangible 

Intelligible 

Interconvertible 

Intervisible 

Invendible 

Inventible 

Invertible 

Invincible 

Invisible 

Irascible 

Irreducible 

Irrefrangible 



Irremissible 

Irreprehensible 

Irrepressible 

Irresistible 

Irresponsible 

Irreversible 

Legible 

Manifestible 

(Manifestable) 

Marcescible 

Miscible 

Negligible 

Nexible 

Omissible 

Ostensible 

Partible 

(Partable) 

Passible 

Perceptible 

Perfectible 

Permiscible 

Permissible 

Persuasible 

Pervertible 

Plausible 

Possible 

Prehensible 

Prescriptible 

Producible 

Productible 

Putrescible 

Quadrible 

Receptible 

Redemptible 

Redressible 

Reducible 

Re-eligible 

Referrible 

(Referable) 



(fn 
(fr, 



Reflectible 

Reflexible 

Refrangible 

Remissible 

Renascible 

Rend-ible 

rend) 
Ren-dible 

render) 
Reprehensible 
Resistible 
Responsible 
Retractible 

Reversible 

Revertible 

Risible 

Seducible 

Sensible 

Sponsible 

Subdivisible 

Subvertible 

Supersensible 

Suppressive 

Susceptible 

Suspensible 

Tangible 

Terrible 

Transferrible 

(Tranferable) 

Transfusible 

Transmissible 

Transmittible 

Tripartible 

Vendible 

Vincible 

Visible 

Vitrescible • 



WORDS ENDING IN 

Affectible Convictible 

Cessible Cullible 

Committible Discerpible 

Compossible Discerptible 



'IBLE 11 ; RARE. 

Evadible 
Evasible 
Exigible 
Impatible 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



167 



Impermissible 

lncognoscible 

Infractible 

Insubmergible 

Suasible 

Tensible 



Traducible 

Transvertible 

Unadmissible 

Unadmittible 

Unexhaustible 



Unexpressible 

Unflexible 

Unfusible 

Unrepressible 

Unresponsible 



WORDS ENDING IN "IBLE"; OBSOLETE. 



Agible 

Appetible 

Alible 

Comestible 

Comminuible 

Competible 

Comptible 

Conceptible 

Conclusible 

Congestible 

Deceptible 

Decerptible 

Depectible 

Depertible 

Deprehensible 

Eligible 

Exemptible 

Expetible 

Fensible 

Fulcible 

Ignoscible 



Immarcescible 

Imperdible 

Impertransible 

Inamissible 

Incompossible 

Inconceptible 

Inconsumptible 

Indefeisible 

Indicible 

Indiscerpible 

Indistinctible 

Inextinguible 

Intransgressible 

Inquisible 

Intenible 

Irremittible 

Miscible 

Obedible 

Odible 

Offensible 



Patible 

Regible 

Sejungible 

Sepeliole 

Suadible 

Suasible 

Subjicible 

Unaccessible 

Uncorrigible 

Uncorruptible 

Uncredible 

Undefeasible 

Uneligible 

Unfallible 

Unfrangible 

Unpossible 

Unresistible 

Unsensible 

Untanffible 

Unvisible 



NOUNS ENDING IN 0. 



Errors sometimes occur in forming the plural of 
nouns in o. We frequently see frescoes, mqttos, — 
both wrong. The general rule is, If the final o has 
a vowel before it, form the plural by adding s : as 
44 cameo, cameos " ; if a consonant precede the final 
o, add es; as "archipelago, archipelagoes." Such 
exceptions to the general rule as are most frequently 
met with, and a few that are rare, we here subjoin : 



168 



PENS AND TYPES. 



Albino 


Albinos 


Merino 


Merinos 


Armadillo 


Armadillos 


Mestizo 


Mestizos 


Busto 


Bustoa 


Nuncio 


Nuncios 


Canto 


Cantos 


Octavo 


Octavos 


Catso 


Catsos 


Octodecimo 


Octodecimos 


Cento 


Centos 


Fiano 


Pianos 


Dido 


Didos 


Portico 


% Porticoes, Wb- 
l Porticos , HVir. 


Domino 


Dominos 


Duo 


Duos 


Portfolio 


Portfolios 


Duodecimo 


Duodecimos 


Proviso 


Provisos 


Embryo 
Exaltado 


Embryos 


Punctilio 


Punctilios 


Exaltadoa 


Quarto 


Quartos 


Folio 


Folios 


Rotunda 


Rotundos 


Fresco 


Frescos 


Salvo 


Salvos 


Gaueho 


Gauchoa 


Sextodecimc 


> Sextodecimos 


Grotto 


Grottos 


Sirocco 


Siroccos 


Halo 


Haloa 


Solo 


Solos 


Inamorato 


Inamoratos 


Trio 


Trios 


Internuncio 


Internuncios 


Two 


Twos 


Junto 


Juntos 


Tyro 


Tyros 


Lasso 


Lassos 


Virtuoso 


Virtuosos 


Limbo 


Limbos 


Zero 


Zeros 


Memento 


Mementos 







But u albugo " has pi. u albugines '* ; and to 
"imago " we should probably have to write ph u im- 
agines." There are many nouns ending in o, for 
whose plurals we have not found any authority be- 
yond the general rule. With the exceptions given 
above, the rule may be safely followed. The plural 
of *' portico " is a matter of style : and there is some 
authority for " quartoes/ 1 



WORDS ENDING EST I8E. 

Words ending with the sound of ize are variously 
spelled we or ize. Of this class the correct spelling 
of the following words is uei nearly if not quite all 
others take ize. 





ORTHOGRAPHY. 


^ 


Advertise 


Demise 


Exorcise 


Advise 


Despise 
Devise 


Franchise 


Affranchise 


Merchandise 


Apprise 


Disfranchise 


Misprise 


Catechise 


Disguise 


Premise 


Chastise 


Divertise 


Reprise 


Circumcise 


Emprise 
Enfranchise 


Revise 


Comprise 


Supervise 


Compromise 


Enterprise 


Surmise 


Criticise 


Exercise 
EI AND IE. 


Surprise 



169 



Many persons find it difficult or impossible to 
recollect the relative position of e and i, in such 
words as receive, believe, etc. If they will bear in 
mind the following rule, it may save them the trouble 
of referring to a dictionary for this point. 

When the derivative noun ends in tion, the verb is 
spelled with ei : thus, — 



Conception 

Deception 

Reception 



Conceive 

Deceive 

Receive 



But when the noun does not end in tion, the verb 
is spelled with ie : as, — 



Belief 



Believe 



WORDS ENDING IN "CION." 

Disregarding the dissyllable scion, we think there 
are but three words in use having this termination, 
viz.: Coercion, Ostracion, Suspicion. Two obsolete 
words are Internecion and Pernicion. 



170 



PENS AND TYPES. 



ENSURE, INSURE, Etc. 

The language has been sometimes enriched by 
retaining the several forms of a " doubtful " word, as 
in the case of draft and draught, each form having 
limitations of meaning peculiar to itself. Ensure 
and Insure we propose to consider distinct words 
rather than various spellings of the same words. 
So, also, of Enure and Inure, 



Ensure. 



[To make sure, certain, 
or safe; " How to en- 
sure peace for any 
term of years." To 
insure is to contract, 
for a consideration, to Enure . 
secure against loss; 
as to insure houses, 
ships, lives.] 



covenant, for a con- 
sideration, to indem- 
nify for loss of any- 
thing specified"; as, 
to insure houses 
against fire, etc.] 



Insure. 

[To underwrite; 



«to 



["To serve to the use 
or benefit of"; as, a 
gift of land enures to 
the benefit of the 
grantee. 

•'The argument was 



made [a century ago] 
as now, that its [a 
protective policy's] 
benefits enured to par- 
ticular classes or seo- 
tions." — B. Harri- 
son's Inaugural Ad- 
dress,] 

Inure 

[To accustom; as, a man 
inures his body to heat 
and cold; a soldier to 
blood inured.] 



CHAPTER Vn. 

CAPITALIZATION, 

To persons who have paid no special, technical 
attention to the subject, capitalization appears a very 
simple matter. The rules are few and easily under- 
stood; but as to the "application of them" there is 
some perplexity and much diversity among authors, 
printers, and proof-readers. Practically, the main 
difficulty seems to arise from the want of a plain 
line of demarkation between common nouns and 
proper nouns I Some write and print "Pacific 
Ocean" as the proper name of a certain collection 
of water; others, "Pacific ocean," — ocean being a 
common noun. We may, perhaps, recur to this ab- 
struse matter farther on ; but at present we will lay 
down such rules as we have used in our own labors, 
and which we deem to be correct. It will be very 
convenient for us, and therefore we hope excusable, 
to adopt two phrases from the expressive terminology 
of the printing-office, where some words are said to 
be " put up," and others to be " put down " ; e. g. : 

" When Music, heavenly maid, was young." 

Here " Music " is said to be " put up," because it 
begins with a capital "M," and "maid" is "put 
down," because it begins with a small "m." 

171 



172 PENS AND TYPES. 

" Abelard taught Eloisa music." 

Here "Abelard," "Eloisa" are "put up," and "music " 
is " put down," 

This premised, understood, and forgiven, we are 
ready for the — 

RULES FOR THE RIGHT USE OF CAPITALS. 

Rule 1. The initial letter of every sentence should 
be a capital. 

Yours received. Glad to hear from you. Will answer next 
week. 

Capitals, Y, G, W, as per Rule 1. 

And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater 
than I can bear. — Genesis 4 : 13. 

Capitals, A and M ; for here are two sentences, although 
one is included in the other. 

Cain said that his punishment was greater than he could 
bear. 

Capital C, by Rule 1 ; but the included words of Cain being 
brought in obliquely, no capital is required. 

Cicero said, "There is no moment without some duty"; 
and who doubts the wisdom of Cicero ? 

C and T are put up, by Rule 1. 

On the first day of January, Artemus Ward made this re- 
mark : Now is a good time to resoloot. 

O and N are put up, by Rule 1. 

Few truisms are truer than this paradox of Aristotle, — To 
mankind in general, the parts are greater than the whole. 

F and T are put up, by Rule 1. 

It has been said, that the included sentence should not be 
capitalized unless immediately preceded by a colon : but the 



CAPITALIZATION. 173 

above examples show, that a sentence directly introduced 
must be capitalized, whatever point precedes it, — comma, 
comma-dash, colon, or any other pause-mark. 

He asked why he was arrested, and we replied that he was 
arrested on suspicion. 

Initial capital H, by Rule 1. 

He asked, "Why am I arrested?" and we replied, "On 
suspicion." 

Here are three initial capitals, and properly ; for the reply, 
fully expressed, would be, "You are arrested on suspicion." 

So, also, captions, head-lines, side-heads, etc., being imper- 
fect sentences, fall under Rule 1. The same is true of partic- 
ulars depending from a general heading ; as — 

Property destroyed by the late fire : 
Seventy reams elephant paper ; 
Tables, chairs, desks ; 
Old-fashioned hall-clock ; 
Johnson's Dictionary, 1st ed. 

We have remarked above, on the passage from Genesis, 
that a sentence introduced obliquely requires no capital. In 
the following exampte, whether Sparta should be inclosed with 
walls is an indirect question, and is not capitalized ; while the 
answer, being direct, takes a capital. 

To the question whether Sparta should be inclosed with 
walls, Lycurgus made this answer: "That city is well forti- 
fied which has a wall of men instead of brick." 

KerPs rule (Grammar, p. 41) is " Within a sentence, the 
first word of any important beginning may commence with a 
capital letter." This rule is probably as precise as can be 
framed to meet his first example, " Resolved, That our Senators 
be requested, etc." His second example, " One truth is clear : 
Whatever is, is right," falls within his rule, and our Rule 1. 
{See page 81, for capitalizing, etc., preambles, resolutions, 
provisos, etc.) 



174 PENS AND TYPES. 

When a sentence is introduced obliquely, a capital is not 
required, even if the passage introduced have quotation marks, 
and make perfect sense without the introductory prefix, as in 
the following example : 

It is remarked by Parton, that " a man who retains to the 
age of seventy-nine the vigor of manhood and the liveliness 
of a boy, cannot, at any period of his life, have egregiously 
violated the laws of his being." 

2. The first letter in every line of poetry should be 
a capital. 

When on the larboard quarter they descry 

A liquid column towering shoot on high, 

The guns were primed ; the vessel northward veers, 

Till her black battery on the column bears. 

Falconer's Shipwreck. 

Thereat the champions both stood still a space, 
To weeten what that dreadful clamor meant : 

Lo ! where they spied with speedy whirling pace 
One in a charet of strange f urniment, 
Towards them driving like a storm outsent. 

The charet decked was m wondrous wise 
With gold and many a gorgeoifc ornament, 

After the Persian monarch's antique guise, 

Such as the maker's self could best by art devise. 

Spenser's Faerie Queene. 

But in reprinting ancient hymns, etc., follow the ancient 
style, — as in the following from the Bible printed in London 
by Robert Barker, in 1615 : 

Here is the Spring where waters flow, 

to quench our heat of sinne : 
Here is the Tree where trueth doth grow, 

to leade our Hues therein : 
This is the Iudge that stints the strife 

when mens deuices f aile : 
Here is the Bread that feeds the life 

that death can not assaile. 



CAPITALIZATION. 175 

3. Principal words in the titles of books, of im- 
portant documents, of proclamations, of edicts, of 
conventions, and words of especial distinction in 
monographs, should be put up. 

Who is the author of " The Mill on the Floss " ? 

The* English barons obtained Magna Charta, or the Great 
Charter, from King John, A.D. 1215. 

When the Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV., 
above 50,000 Huguenots fled from France. 

The father of Watts the hymnist, suffered much after the 
withdrawal of the Declaration of Indulgence. 

Every State having chess clubs in its cities should organize 
a State Chess Association, and these associations should send 
delegates to the Annual Convention of the National Associa- 
tion. — Phil. Ledger. 

The President of the United States, the Sovereign of Eng- 
land, and the Governors of the several States of our Union, 
issue proclamations. Despots issue edicts, — sometimes called 
by the more general name of " decrees," as in Ezra 6 : 1, 3. 
From Esther 1 : 19-22 we learn that a " royal commandment" 
was sent into all the king's provinces, " that every man should 
bear rule in his own house." If any of our readers have 
occasion to put in type, or read the proof of, the title of an 
edict or decree, they will, of course, make it agree with the 
rule. Of proclamations we have several every year. Fre- 
quently all the letters of the titles are capitals ; otherwise, the 
capitals appear as in the following example : 

By His Excellency, B. A., 

Governor of the State [or Commonwealth'] of . 

A Proclamation for a Day of Public Humiliation, Fasting, 
and Prayer. 

In a monograph of a geological survey the following par- 
agraph appears : 

The dark laminated clays of the Cretaceous passing up 
into the Upper Cretaceous are well shown .... passing up 



176 PENS AND TYPES. 

into brown sandstones of the Coal group. There is great uni- 
formity in the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary series. — 

Hayden, Survey Montana. 

Webster says, that the Carboniferous age " embraces three 
periods, the Subcarboniferous, the Carboniferous, and the 
Permian," but the Fifth Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Survey, 
doubtless for some good reason, changes the style to the sub- 
Carboniferous (v. remark under Rule 8, on "transatlantic," 
etc.). 

The main subject under discussion being Woman Suffrage, 
those words were properly capitalized in the following para- 
graph : 

It is conceded . . . that the avowal even, of faith in the 
principle of Woman Suffrage, would handicap the party most 
seriously. 

In accordance with Rule 3 was this direction touching a 
Report on Education : 

Spell "report" with capital R, when it refers to this Re- 
port; 1. c. [lower-case] in other cases. 

Presidential, imperial, kingly, ducal, etc., titles are put 
down when used generally, but are put up when applied to 
persons. In the following example " an emperor " is down, 
while •• the Emperor" is put up. 

The events which now took place in the interior of Germany 
were such as usually happened when either the throne was 
without an emperor, or the Emperor without a sense of his 
imperial dignity. — Schiller's Thirty Years' War. 

Beginning with President Washington and including Presi- 
dent Harrison, the United States has had twenty-three presi- 
dents. 

4. Names and appellations of the Supreme Being 
should be capitalized. 

We forbear inserting a list of the sacred names, too often 
written and uttered " in vain." The reader is probably famil- 



CAPITALIZATION. 177 

iar with them from listening to Sabbath services, and reading 
religious books with which, we hope, his library abounds. 

The word " providence " should be put down or up, accord- 
ing to its meaning, as may be seen in the two following 
sentences : 

But behold now another providence of God ; a ship came 
into the harbor. . . . This ship had store of English beads 
and some knives. — New England's Memorial. 

The world was all before them, where to choose 

Their place of rest, and Providence their guide. — Milton. 

Nouns ordinarily common become proper when written as 
names of the Supreme Being. 

I hope my merciful Judge will bear in mind my heavy pun- 
ishment on earth. — Pickwick Papers, ch. 44. 

Emerson refers "all productions at last to an aboriginal 
Power." — Century Maga. 

Plato said, that in all nations certain minds dwell on the 
" fundamental Unity," and '* lose all being in one Being." — lb. 

In the above examples, the effect of capitals in conveying 
the idea of personality is strikingly illustrated. 

Pronouns referring to the Deity are not usually put up, — 
excepting the personals " He," " Him." 

O thou, whose justice reigns on high. — Watts. 

O thou, Most High — Ps. 56 : 2. 

Father of all mercies, we, thine unworthy servants, do give 
thee most humble and hearty thanks for all thy goodness. — 

Common Prayer. 

Thou, whose, thine, thy, properly lower-case. 

Usage is ununiform as to capitalizing the pronoun of the 
third person, when referring to the Deity; some using the 
capital in all three cases (He, His, Him), while others capital- 
ize the nominative and objective, and put " his " down ; and still 
others put all the cases down. 

God does love us. As any loving father or mother, He 
wants us to want His society, and to love to be with and talk 
with Him. — Congregationalism 

Small letter in the possessive, capital in the objective : 



173 PENS AND TYPES. 

All the works of God . . . declare the glory of his perfec- 
tions. . . . But how gross are the conceptions generally enter- 
tained of the character of Him ** in whom we live and move ! " 

Dick. ImprovH Soc. § VI. 

All the cases down : 

. . . They can know but little ... of that happiness which 
God has prepared for them that love him ; but . . . this suf- 
fices them, that they shall see him as he is, etc. . . . the 
expectation founded upon his own gracious promise, etc. — 
Rev. John Newtoris Sermon on the " happy recovery " of King 
Qeorge {modern reprint). 

But, whatever the style of the office, there is one category 
in which the personal pronoun must be capitalized : it is when 
no antecedent is expressed. Such cases are not of infrequent 
occurrence. If one were to write — 

In all her troubles this good lady never failed to express 
her confidence in the care of him in whom she had put her 
trust — 

the meaning would be doubtful ; " him" might refer to some 
humane relative, or to the superintendent of the almshouse. 
But if the sentence were written — 

. . . this good lady never failed to express her confidence 
in the care of Him in whom, etc. — 

the meaning — that the Deity is intended — becomes clear. 

Adjuncts qualifying names applied to Deity usually require 
no capitals : 

For when we consider ourselves as the creatures of God 
. . . what can induce us to love, fear, and trust Him, as our 
God, our Father, and all-sufficient Friend and Helper. — 

Mason's Self-Knowledge. 

Here '♦all-sufficient" is properly put down; as are also 
" great " and " common " in the following paragraph : 

Not only honor and justice, and what I owe to man is my 
interest; but gratitude also, acquiescence, resignation, adora- 
tion, and all I owe to this great polity, and its great Governor 
our common Parent. — Harris. 



V 



CAPITALIZATION. . 179 

But many cases occur where the adjective is properly put 
up ; especially if the adjective itself denotes sacredness, as the 
following examples show : 

Klopstock . . . suffers himself to forget that the [French] 
revolution itself is a process of the Divine Providence. — 

Coleridge Biog. Lit. 

Among the greater number of pagan nations, the most 
absurd and grovelling notions are entertained respecting the 
Supreme Intelligence, and the nature of that worship which 
his perfections demand. — Dick. 

We are apt to entertain narrow conceptions of the Divine 
Nature. — Addison. 

The words '• Christian " and " Christianity * the best usage 
puts up ; nor does there seem to be any good reason why 
** christianize " should not also be capitalized. 

There are instances where the word "divine," though 
referring to sacred personages, should not be put up; as — 

If Christ did not hold this key, how is He divine ? — 

Congregationalism 

The words ••godly," "godfather," "godmother" are put 
down: Webster has "godspeed," and says it is "written also 
as two separate words, as in 2 John 10." Worcester does not 
admit the phrase as one word in his defining columns, but 
prints it as two, under the word " God"; quoting the same 
text as Webster. The Congressional Record, 50th Congress, 
tises capital and hyphen, thus: "God-speed"; and this form 
is adopted by Abbot Bassett, the talented editor of the L. A. W. 
Bulletin, in his Farewell to former Chief Consul Hayes : 

Take now the hand we so often have shaken, 
Speak from our feelings so hard to subdue, 
Send him in joyf ulness out froni our circle, 
• Give him a hearty God-speed and adieu. 

Still Webster's style of one word, lower-case, is, we think, pref- 
erable, and most used. 

The word "gospel" when used generally, — in the sense 
of good tidings, — should be down; as "Woe is me, if I 



180 PENS AND TYPES. 

preach not the gospel." But when used as part of a title to 
a specific book, it goes up; as " The Gospel according to St. 
Matthew " ; " The Apocryphal Gospel of St. Thomas " ; " The 
Gospel of St. Luke." 

5. Names of ancient Greek and Roman divinities, 
and of all pagan and heathen gods, should be put up. 

When the word "god" or "goddess" is applied to a 
paganic divinity, it is put down. This remark and our Rule 5 
are both exemplified in Darwin's lines, — 

First two dread snakes, at Juno's vengeful nod, 
Climbed round the cradle of the sleeping god. 

Botanic Garden. 
So, also, 1 Kings 11 : 33 : 

Worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Che- 
mosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the chil- 
dren of Ammon. 

The names applied to evil spirits should be put up : 
And Satan came also among them. — Job 1 : 6. 
Then Apollyon said unto Christian, " Here will I spill thy 
soul." — Bunyan. 

During a violent thunderstorm, the converted Chinese stew- 
ard disappeared. The captain found him below, making pros- 
trations before a gilded image. " How is this ? " demanded the 
astonished captain ; "I thought you were a Christian." The 
Chinaman replied, "Your God velly well, fine weather; 
stolm like this, want Joss." 

In the above example, the objects of Christian and pagan 
worship are properly capitalized. 

From the foregoing remarks, etc., especially under Rule 4, 
it will be perceived that capitalization is, in the department of 
theology as in all others, mostly regulated by "office style. 
But in forming a style, the above rules and examples may be 
found serviceable. 

6. The pronoun I, and the interjection O, should 
always be put up. 



CAPITA LIZA TION. 181 

I scarcely knew how long I had sat there when I became 
aware of a recognition. 

Praise the Lord, O my soul. — Ps. cxlvi. 

But in Latin the " O" is frequently put down. 
Hue ades, 6 formosa puer. — Virgil. 

Adestes o Maria, o Angele, o Patroni castitatis meae. — 
Ltbellus Precum, Georgiopoli, D. 0. 

7. Some words which are put down when spelled 
in full, are put up when contracted. 

The Dr. called upon me. Need I say, I regretted the hap- 
piness of seeing the doctor? 

44 Patent-office, number 16 " may be written, 44 Patent-office, 
No. 16." 

The honorable the Secretary of the Navy. 

The Hon. the Secretary of the Navy. 

But certain suffixes, whether spelled in full or contracted, 
are put up or down, or in small caps, capitalized, according to 
the style of the words to which they are suffixed; as, for 
instance, the words 44 junior" and 44 esquire," which are put 
one degree less in dignity than the words to which they are 
attached; as: 

John Smith, jr., esq., [or 44 junior, esquire."] 
The person's name being lower-case capitalized, 44 jr." and 
44 esq." are put down. 

John Doe, Jr. Esq., [or 44 Junior, Esquire."] 
The names being small caps, capitalized, the "jr." and 
44 esq." are put up. 

RICHARD ROE, Jr. Esq., [or 44 Junior, Esquire."] 
The names being in capitals, the suffixes are capitals and 

small capitals. 

But 44 D.D." 44 LL.D." 44 M.D." etc., are put in large or 

small capitals according to office style, or a style adapted for 

the work in which they appear : as — 



182 



Pi:XS AND TYPES. 



John Doe, LL/TK ; Richard Roe, Ph.D. \ J. SMITH, m.d. ; 
ABEL MONEY, F.R.S. 

Words connected with a number of designation are often 
put up, — and this is the better way. So, though the words 
"Bay," ** Dock/' etc., in the following examples may properly 
be put down if the office style require it, yet the unfettered 
compositor and reader will prefer to put up those , and all 
words similarly placed ■ as i 

The planks of Bay Xo. 6 on Chelsea Bridge have been re- 
placed hy ordinary boards purchased at Dock No. 8. 

We arrived at Station 16 1 and proceeded thence through 
Lock 12 to Dam No, 8. 



8, Names of persons, of things personified, of 
nations, countries, cities, towns, streets, ships, etc,, 
should be put up. 

Capt Samuel Jones sailed in ship Minerva, from Sandy 
Hook to Tanjoiig Bolus, the most southerly point of the con- 
tinent of Asia. 

A charming and xpirttntik Frenchwoman said of Julius 
Mohl, that Nature, in forming his character, had skimmed the 
in am of the three nationalities to which he belonged by 
birth, by adoption* and by marriage; making him "deep as a 
German, spirilnel as a ftenehman, and loyal as an English- 
man. " — Atlantic Monthly. 

Charles, Susan, William, Henrietta Matilda, Benjamin 
Harrison Smith, come in, this minute ! 

Under this rule proper adjectives may also be classed ; as : 

The French and American Claims Commission. 

He is familiar with the German, French, Russian, Bengalee, 
Chinese, and Grebo languages. 

Is the Monroe doctrine heartily concurred in by European 
nations ? 

Names of political parties should be put up. 

Democrat, Democratic, Democracy, Republican, Republi- 
canism, Woraan-SuflV:i£ists t Women's Rights party, Locot 
Whigs, Tories, Free-Soilers, Liberals, Independents, etc* 



CAPITALIZATION. 183 

But when any of these words are used in a general sense, 
they should be put down ; as : 

Whatever requires to be done by slow and cautious degrees 
does not accord with the spirit of democracy. — De Stcfel. 

The tendency of some European nations is toward republi- 
canism. 

The words "state" and "territory" applied to political 
divisions of the United States should be put up ; as : 

The State of North Dakota. The Territory of Utah. 

This State gave a Republican majority. 

Some nouns and adjectives originally proper have, by usage, 
the common form ; as : 

We sell silver, china, and iron wares. 

There is great demand for india-rubber goods. 

His pets are guinea-pigs and guinea-hens. 

That maltese cat follows her everywhere. 

He wears russia-leather boots, morocco gaiters, and a fez 
cap when dancing the germ an. 

The burglars secured six german silver spoons. 

Numbers are denoted by roman capitals or arabic figures. 

There are some words yet on debatable ground. It is safe 
to write " plaster of Paris " or " plaster of paris." The latter 
form is well enough for so common an article, and should be 
preferred by compositors. 

Some words which are put up when alone, are put down 
when they coalesce with a preposition ; as : 

I crossed the Atlantic to view transatlantic countries. 

The transpacific people are apt merchants. 

But some write " inter-State," " cis-Platine," •• trans- Atlan- 
tic," •• cis-Padane," " cis-Alpine," etc. We know of no good 
authority for such work. It has no countenance from our lex- 
icographers: and the hyphen and capital in the middle of the 
words are needless deformities. 

Note. The "etc." in Rule 7 is like one spoken of by 
Coke (an "etc." of Littleton, I am told), "full of exoej* 



184 PENS AND TYPES. 

lent meaning." Descending from the name of a conti- 
nent to the designations "beat," "precinct," "alley"; 
or ascending from " wharf," " alley " to the name of a 
continent, through lessening or increasing subdivisions, 
the line must be drawn somewhere between what is to be 
put up and what is to be put down. Just where the 
line is drawn between capital and lower-case initials, 
between the aristocrats of the page and hoipolloi, is of 
very little consequence ; but as uniformity in a work is 
desirable while proof-readers are liable to differ, it is as 
important to have an umpire in a proof-room as it is on 
a base-ball ground. And as capitalization is wholly arbi- 
trary, the essential qualities of an umpire are, that he 
shall have a good memory, so as not to overset to-day 
the decisions of yesterday, and a strong will of his own, 
which shall not allow any obstinate reader to step across 
the important imaginary line which separates the tips 
from the downs, — the majuscules from the minuscules. 

If a printing-office requires the services of but one 
reader, he, happy man, can suit himself, even though 
reasonably sure that he will suit nobody else — so vari- 
ous and set are the opinions of men on matters of tri- 
fling moment. If, however, two readers are employed, 
and on the same work, the one with the best judgment 
should be allowed to decide all doubtful points ; but in 
this case, as in matrimonial life, the question as to 
which has the best judgment, is usually decided, if not 
by the strongest will, by the will of the party most reck- 
less of consequences. But in proof-reading, any point 
in dispute is usually so trifling, that the readers can call 

in the office-boy, technically called printer's but 

we were once youngest apprentice ourself, and choose to 
forget the word, — and let him settle it ; whereas, in 
matrimonial life it is a different Agency with a similar 
name who is generally called in, and " by decision more 
embroils the fray." 



CAPITALIZATION. 



185 



To show the absurdity of supposing that good readers 
will not differ in the use of capitals, we once wrote a 
paragraph, and gave an exact copy to each of two 
skilled proof-readers, desiring them to capitalize it as 
they thought it should be capitalized if about to go to 
press. We will here give the paragraph as we wrote it 
— without regard to rules — and then exhibit their cor- 
rections, etc., in parallel columns : 

Mr. Quilp lives on a wharf which is connected by an alley 
with a city reservation in beat 17, precinct 8, ward 14. Said 
reservation is called poplar square; an avenue, known as 
chestnut avenue, connects that square with Washington street ; 
and Washington street is a thoroughfare connecting the Snow- 
hill division of Junction city with the city of Boomerang, the 
capital of the state of Cherokee — a state just admitted to the 
union, and to all the privileges of this happy nation, the United 
States of America, — the foremost republic of the western 
hemisphere. 

That the differences and agreements in capitalizing 
may be readily observed, the two returned copies, as left 
by their respective readers, are printed below, side by 
side. 

READER B. 



READER A. 

Mr. Quilp lives on a wharf 
which is connected by an alley 
with a city reservation in beat 
17, precinct 8, ward 14. Said res- 
ervation is called Poplar square ; 
an avenue, known as Chestnut 
avenue, connects that square 
with Washington street; and 
Washington street is a thor- 
oughfare connecting Snowhill 
division of Junction City with 
the city of Boomerang, the capi- 
tal of the State of Cherokee — a 
State just admitted to the Union, 
and to all the privileges of this 
happy nation, the United States 
of America — the foremost repub- 
lic of the western hemisphere. 



Mr. Quilp lives on a wharf 
which is connected by an alley 
with a city reservation in Beat 
17, Precinct 8, Ward 14. Said 
reservation is called Poplar 
Square; an avenue, known as 
Chestnut avenue, connects that 
square with Washington street; 
and Washington street is a thor- 
oughfare connecting Snowhill di- 
vision of Junction City with the 
city of Boomerang, the capital of 
the State of Cherokee — a State 
just admitted to the Union, and 
to all the privileges of this happy 
nation, the United States of 
America — the foremost republic 
of the Western Hemisphere. 



186 PENS AND TYPES. 

One of these styles may be just as good as the other 
(see chapter on " Style ") ; but whichever were selected, 
should be strictly adhered to, through the whole book or 
work to which it was deemed applicable. Had the above 
paragraph been given to still a third reader, very likely 
he would have capitalized "Division," as being of more 
consequence than a beat or a ward ; another would have 
deemed "Precinct" worthy of being put up, while 
"beat" would have been placed in the small-letter 
obscurity of "wharf" and "alley." Another would 
say that localities designated by a number should 
always be put up; as "Beat 6," "Station A" (See 
closing remark and examples, under Rule 7). The 
words "street" and "avenue" are left down by both 
the above readers. The Atlantic Monthly puts those 
words up, — " The junction of Beacon Street and Brook- 
line Avenue"; the Century magazine has "Canal 
street, its former upper boundary"; Harper's Maga. 
speaks of " the old house in St. Louis Street in which," 
etc. Each office makes its own style. 

The word " city " in " Junction City " is put up, — 
the two words forming the city's name. Whether to 
print "New York City" or "New York city" is a 
moot point, — at present a matter of style. Some 
insist that as ocean, sea, city, street, etc., are common 
nouns, they so remain when connected with a proper 
adjective, and should be put down, — and from this 
starting-point they have endeavored to frame a general, 
and at the same time practical, rule for capitalizing 
common nouns, which, when described by proper adjec- 
tives, form parts of individual names. But, judging 
from our experience in proof-reading, the endeavor has 
thus far been unsuccessful. The adjective, the distin- 



CAPITALIZATION. 187 

guishing word, always begins with a capital; as in 
"Bristol county," "Atlantic ocean." The rule then, 
formulated, amounts to this: "Put the distinguishing 
word up, and the class name down." But usage will 
not allow this; we must not write "Long island," 
"James smith," — wherefore the rule has this qualifi- 
cation: "If the distinguishing word alone does not 
clearly designate the object, both words must be put 
up." This qualification virtually annuls the rule, — for 
different minds have different opinions as to whether 
the object is, or is not, "clearly designated." Reader A 
writes " Poplar square," while Reader B writes " Poplar 
Square." Under the rule and qualification, mentioned 
above, we have set before us, as correct examples, 
"Hudson river, Red River"; as if the significance of 
such prefixes as " red, swift, narrow, deep," could not be 
determined by the insertion or omission of the article a, 
of which we shall speak farther on, — but must be made 
by capitalizing " river." But admitting that the capital- 
izing of " River " more clearly designates the object, we 
doubt whether any printer or reader would wittingly 
pass one " river " down, and another " River " up, in the 
same work ; and the average writer and reader for the 
press can hardly be -supposed to take much time to study 
whether a given river or city or square is just within or 
outside of the limit of " clear designation." Among the 
proof-readers of a certain large work on geography, 
which seems to have been carefully read, there must 
have been some difference of opinion on this point ; for 
it speaks of "the bay of Biscay" and "the Gulf of 
Mexico" ; and the " Atlantic ocean " of Vol. 1, becomes 
the " Atlantic Ocean " of Vol. 2. And such discrepan- 
cies must appear in every work which is printed under 



188 PENS AND TYPES. 

the rule " Put the object down and the distinguishing 
word up — with exceptions/ 9 unless the exceptions are 
mentioned individually, seriatim, and a list of the same 
given to all employees who are expected to set type and 
read proof under such rule. 

The objection to putting the class name down, is not 
so much that the distinguishing word alone ever fails to 
"clearly designate the object," as that usage in many 
instances, and a sense of personal dignity in others, pre- 
vent all family and many other class names from sinking 
into lower-case. It were — there being no usage in its 
favor — a shame to print "Andrew Jackson" with a 
little " j," although the distinguishing word " Andrew " 
would clearly designate the individual intended. "We 
sailed past Long island " could not possibly be mistaken 
for " We sailed past a long island." In conversation 
the mere omission of the article a would clearly indicate 
that we had a particular island in view, and what island 
it was, even if we were not to inform an interlocutor, 
that, were we to print our remark we should capitalize 
the "L," and very possibly the "I." 

" We sailed on a red river," — it may have been the 
Raritan, or any other river running among iron ore ; or 
it may have been any one of the twelve streams of the 
United States which bear each the name "Red river"; 
the article a, as Murray observes, " determines the object 
spoken of to be one single thing of a kind, leaving it 
still uncertain which." " It is," says Murray further, 
"an excellence of the English language," that, "by 
means of its two articles it does most precisely determine 
the extent of signification of common names." By the 
omission of the article a, then, a particular river is 
"most precisely determined," — and, in print, capitaliz- 



CAPITALIZATION. 189 

ing the " R " of the adjective makes assurance doubly 
sure. But since long-established usage determines that 
"Long Island," "Harper's Ferry," "Lake Ontario," 
" George Washington," etc., shall have both words put 
up, uniformity can be secured only by extending that 
mode of capitalization to all words in the same category 
— unless, as we have intimated, each exception be men- 
tioned individually, so that every printer may " clearly 
designate " (so to speak) what is expected of him. 

9. A word usually put down may be put up, or 
vice versa, by reason of propinquity to some other 
word which is in the opposite category as to capitali- 
zation. 

We are not aware that this rule, or an equivalent to it, has 
been formulated until now, but we have known changes in 
capitalizing to be made in compliance with the principle of 
the rule. 

A printed report (Reform School) reads : 

The visitors were cordially received and welcomed by the 
Superintendent and matron of the Board of Trustees. 

The style required that, usually, ** Superintendent" should 
be up, and '* Matron" down, as printed above. But when the 
words are so near each other, the small m looks — without 
regard to the maxim, Place aux dames — as if the lady were 
subjected to an intentional slight. We think it had been better 
thus: 

The visitors were cordially . . . welcomed by the Superin- 
tendent and the Matron of the Board of Trustees. 

By the way, this insertion of the before "Matron" shows 
that the Matron was not also the Superintendent — thus illus- 
trating Murray's remark on the "two articles," mentioned near 
the close of the note under Rule 8, ante. 



190 PENS AND TYPES. 

This clause also occurs : 

Friends of the school residing in the city and District, 

Here " city " is put down, as if of less consequence than the 
outlying parts of the " District " [of Columbia]. 

That is correct, according to usual office style ; but had 
"city" been put up, or "district" down, it would have been 
more pleasing to the eye, and would not, probably, have 
wrought any mischief. In the use of capitals, rules should 
be, and in fact are, very bendable. When we write "the 
member of Congress," member is down, though we capitalize 
" the Delegate from the Territory of Blank.'' But when 
"Member and Delegate" occur in the same sentence, both 
words are put up, agreeably to Rule 9. 

It is a good rule adopted in some printing-offices, that where 
the same appellation is given to several persons or publio 
bodies, only the highest in rank shall be honored with capitals. 

For instance, in speaking of the highest tribunal in the land, 
put up "the Supreme Court"; but if a State court is spoken 
of put the initials down, thus, — " the supreme court of Min- 
nesota," as in the following paragraph : 

This view of the law was sustained by the supreme court 
of Louisiana, and, upon writ of error, by the Supreme Court 
of the United States (Day vs. Micou, 18 Wall., 156). 

So, also* "the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme 
Court" — capitals ; "the chief justice of the supreme court of 
Maryland" — lower-case; the highest "Commissioner" in 
any Governmental Department, up; a road commissioner, 
down. A steady adherence to this rule might aid students and 
others to discriminate between the " Governor" of a State and 
the " governor" of a family ; and if a decision is rendered by 
" the full bench of the Supreme Court," one would know that 
no appeal could be had, — while if a decision is made by " the 
supreme court," it might, perhaps, be carried up on appeal. 

But this distinction can never be fully carried out. We 
have known it to be set aside by the following direction 



CAPITALIZA TION. 191 

marking out a " special style " for a volume of " Decisions " : 
«' Capitalize Supreme Court, Court of Claims, Circuit Court, 
District Court, and Supreme Court of Tennessee." Besides, 
Great Men are inimical to small letters. The President of a 
Village Lyceum insists on being put up as high as the Presi- 
dent of the United States, — in fact, the said president may 
feel that he is " a bigrer man " than the President. 

And if, on the other hand, as some proof-readers have con- 
tended, capitalization should be employed to distinguish, in 
print, our Government from every foreign Government, the 
effect would be almost too ridiculous to state ; as : 

The Chief Executive of the United States had an interview 
with the chief executive of Mexico. The President said to 
the president, " How do you do? " — and the president replied, 
**I am better than ever I was before, for I see the President 
of the Great Colossus of the North." — ** And I," rejoined the 
President, " am delighted with the honor of conversing with 
the great colossus of the south." Here the president bowed 
to the President, and the President shook the president's hand. 
The One then took his Oysters on the Half -Shell, and the other 
his oysters on the half-shell. * 

The style was once verging toward something very ridicu- 
lous, -and might have proceeded to the above extreme had not 
a distinguished Secretary of State, several years ago, made 
some well-timed suggestions. 

If the office style require " board," "bureau," etc., refer- 
ring to a corporation, or collection of individuals, to be put 
down, cases like the following should form exceptions : 

The festive board was graced by the festive board of direct- 
ors of the Rochester saw-mills. 

It should be printed " Board of Directors." 

A new bureau has been forwarded to the new bureau of 
musical notation. 

Put up "Bureau of Musical Notation." 
Thus, by a judicious selection and arrangement of capital 
and lower-case letters, Boards and Bureaus of gentlemen may 



192 PENS AND TYPES. 

be readily differentiated from mere furniture, mahogany or 
black-walnut boards and bureaus. 

The principle of a change of style by reason of juxtaposi- 
tion, is recognized in the following direction for printing an 
important work on the fisheries: "Put quantities, measure- 
ments, distances, and sums of money in figures ; numbers of 
men and vessels spelled, except where large numbers occur 
together." 



RECAPITULATION. 

In the preceding part of this chapter we felt it necessary to 
give many examples, and enter upon some discussion of styles. 
To save time and trouble in turning many leaves to find some 
particular rule, we give below, all the rules in compact form, 
with but brief, if any, examples in illustration. 

Rule I. The initial lettep of every sentence should 

be a capital. 

This rule has been long established. It scarcely requires 
an example. 

Rule II. The first letter in every line of poetry 
should be a capital. 

What though my winged hours of bliss have been 
Like angel-visits, few and far between. — Campbell. 

Rule III. Principal words in the titles of books, 
of important documents, of proclamations, of edicts, 
of conventions, and words of especial distinction in 
monographs, should be put up. 

There is in the library a book entitled, "An Interesting 
Narrative of the Travels of James Bruce, Esq., into Abyssinia, 
to Discover the Source of the Nile." 



CAPITALIZATION. 193 

Rule IV. Names and appellations of the Supreme 
Being should be capitalized. 

Rule V. Names of ancient Greek and Roman 

divinities, and of all pagan and heathen gods, should 

be put up. 

iEsculapius restored many to life, of which Pluto com- 
plained to Jupiter, who struck JEsculapius with thunder, but 
Apollo, angry at the death of his son, killed the Cyclops who 
made the thunderbolts. — Lempriere. 

Rule VI. The pronoun I, and the interjection O, 
should always be put up. 
Here am I ; send me, O king ! 

Rule VII. Some words which are put down when 
spelled in full, are put up when contracted. 

The honorable the Secretary of the Treasury. 
The Hon. the Secretary of the Treasury. 

Rule VIII. Names of persons, of things personi- 
fied, of nations, countries, cities, towns, streets, ships, 
etc., should be put up. 

And well may Doubt, the mother of Dismay, 
Pause at her martyr's tomb. — Campbell. 

Rule IX. A word usually put down may be put 
up, or vice versa, by reason of propinquity to some 
other word which is in the opposite category as to 
capitalization. 

The Secretary of War complimented the Secretary of the 
Typographical Union, upon his skill with the shooting-stick. 

Shall the Choctaw Nation or this Nation adjust the northern 
boundary P 



194 PENS AND TYPES. 

Before leaving the subject of capitalization, we must 
observe that there is diversity among authors and 
printers in regard to the use of capitals when two or 
more questions occur in succession. The rule generally 
given is, " Capitalize each question " : but the exceptions 
are so numerous, depending on some common relation to 
a term expressed or understood (see Obs. 30 and 31, Rule 
29, Chap. V., ante), that we forbear indorsing the rule to 
which we have above referred. Indeed, it often happens 
that questions occurring singly are so connected with 
what goes before, that they do not require to be capital- 
ized. Each case must be settled by the judgment of 
editor or author, — there is no common standard of 
reference, as can easily be shown by comparing different 
editions of the same work. In Buckingham's Shak- 
speare, printed in Boston, we read in As you Like It, 
Act 5, Sc. 2 : 

Orl. 1st possible that on so little acquaintance you should 
like her P . . . And will you persever, etc., 

the last question having a capital A ; but in the London 
edition of French & Co., we have — 

Orl. 1st possible that on so little acquaintance you should 
like her P . . . and will you persever, etc., 

in which the last of the several questions has a lower- 
case a. Every editor endeavors to capitalize correctly 
— by suiting himself. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OLD STYLE. 

Fonts of movable Types, from their firft Intro- 
duction into England until late in the eighteenth 
Century, contained — owing principally to the 
long " f " (= s) then in Ufe — far more Ligatures 
than the Fonts of the prefent Day. Johnfon's 
Di&ionary furnilhes a Lift which we here infert, 
with their more modern Equivalents : 

<l = ct; f=s; {b = sb; lh = sh; fi = si; 
ik = sk ; ff= ss ; ft = st ; fli = ssi ; fll = ssl : and 
in italic, tt=ct; f=s ; Jb— sh ; Jli = sh ; Jk =sk ; 
JJT= ss; ft = st; Jft = ssi; JJl = ssl 

It was our good Fortune, at a very early Period 
of Life, to attend a dame School, where a Book, 
printed in Glafgow, in the Year 1756, was put into 
our Hands. This Book contained the Weftmin- 
fter Larger and Shorter Catechifms, and a DireSory 
of Public Worfhip, — the Intention perhaps being 
to teach us good Englifh and found u Kirk " Doc- 
trines at the fame Time. Fortunately or other- 
wife, the Dodrines were above our Comprehenfion 
at that Time; but the long f's and the Ligatures 

195 



196 PENS AND TYPES. 

became Part of our Eye- Vernacular (if we may be 
pardoned for fuch an Expreflion), at which we 
rejoice. We hope that the Young who have not 
had the Advantages of antique Catechifms will 
perufe the Old Style Pages of this Chapter until 
they become fo familiar with ancient and nearly 
forgotten Letters as to be able to enjoy the many 
good Things to be found in old-time Books, 
whether printed in Glafgow or elfewhere. 

To Printers who have " ferved their Time " in 
the Book-offices of the Eaft or the early fettled 
Cities of the South and Weft, a Chapter like this 
may feem wholly fuperfluous. But in a Country 
like ours, where new Towns and Cities are daily 
fpringing into Exiftence, daily Newfpapers fpring- 
ing up with them, it often happens that Boys and 
young Men who have had but fcanty Schooling 
are taken as Apprentices to learn the Art of Arts. 
Many of thefe become rapid and correft Compofi- 
tors, and in Procefs of Time drift to Cities where 
are Printing-offices with more Varieties of Type 
than the new Comers have been accuftomed to, — 
am"ong the reft, Old Style, both in its ancient and 
modernized Forms; and it is, in good Part, for 
the Benefit of thefe that we devote a few Pages to 
Old Style. 

In purfuing our Subjed we (hall pafs by Cax- 



OLD STYLE. 197 

ton, who, as Everybody knows, introduced movable 
Types into England in the feventh Year of the 
fourth Edward, make but brief Mention of Caflon 
(i 692-1 766), who about the Year 1720, made 
Matrices and caft genuine and beautiful old-ftyle 
Type, — and come dire&ly to the Fad that, in 
1843, an Englifh Printer defired to reprint in Old 
Style a Book of the Time of Charles II. The old 
Matrices of Caflon were found {v. Brit. Encyc), 
and from them a Font was caft, which, with im- 
proved Preffes, etc., gave a better Impreflion than 
had been obtained in Caflon's Time. Since then 
(1843), ^ e Demand for Old Style has fteadily in- 
creaied, both in England and America, and our 
Founders have produced a modernized Old Style ; 
in which, however, it is thought by many that 
Legibility has been facrificed to Beauty and gen- 
eral EfFett Our Purpofe here is to treat of the 
earlier Style, which ftill reaches Printing-offices 
occafionally as Copy, and in which Programmes 
for "Old Folks' Concerts," and alfo fome Pam- 
phlets, are printed even in thefe Days. 

In Old Style, s final is a fhort s; in all other 
Parts of a Word, even if it is the laft Letter of a 
Syllable of a Word divided at the End of a Line, 
the long, kerned u f " is ufed. To prevent break- 
ing the Kern the long " f " was caft in the fame 



198 PENS AND TYPES. 

Matrix with fuch Letters as it would otherwife 
interfere with, — the two, or in Cafe of double f 
the three, Letters forming one Type ; juft as " f " 
is now ligated to other Letters, as fi, ffl, etc. 

And here, while fpeaking of Ligatures, we would 
fain digrefs a Moment, — even at the Expenfe of 
lengthening our old-ftyle Chapter, — to remark 
that there are fome interfering Combinations for 
which Ligatures have not been caft. We have 
feen Book-catalogues in which the Word " Illvf- 
trated" frequently occurred, having the Kerns of 
the italic / and its Neighbor /, one or both, broken 
off. The fame happens when the Word *' Illinois " 
is fet in italic, unlefs the Compofitor infert a thin 
Space to keep the Letters from encroaching on 
each other's Territory. The fame Method muft 
be obferved when the Combination of/ with b, A, 
or k, is met with ; as in Hof burg, Hof hoof, and 
Hoffkirchen ; otherwife one or more Letters will 
prefent a mutilated Appearance on the Proof-lheet. 

An italic Ihort s ligated with /, formerly in 
Ufe, does not feem to have remained long in the 
Printer's Cafe; but — perhaps from the Beauty of 
its Curves — the " ft," both in roman and italic, 
retains its Popularity, and is found in Fonts of 
modernized Old Style which have rejefted the long 
y and its Ligatures. Indeed, we have what are 



OLD STYLE. 199 

called " ft Books," in which the defignating Term 
is ufed as though it were as needful as " fi," and 
the other Combinations of the kerned Letter/. 

We conclude this Portion of our Work by pre- 
fenting fome Fac-fimilcs of Old Style, produced 
by Photogravure. The firft is Part of a Page 
from " Annals of King George," printed in Lon* 
don, in 171 7. 

The next is a Fac-fimile of four roman and three 
italic Lines from T. B. Reed's " Hiftory of Print- 
ing." Thefe feven Lines were printed from Type 
caft in the Matrices made by the elder Caflon, 
in 1720. They Ihow an immenfe Improvement 
when compared with the Page of the " Annals " 
executed but three Years before. 

The third Sample is from Fry & Steele's " Speci- 
mens of Printing Type," dated 1794; while the 
fourth, from the Foundry of Caflon the younger, 
dated 1 796, having dropped the long a f " and its 
Ligatures, informs us of the Period when the Old 
was giving Place to the New, 



•200 



PENS AND TYPES. 



r 8j 3 

their March* After this, juft at the Time tfiat 
the Watch broke up, and the City Gates were 
to be open'd, the proper Officers, who came 
to opeo thera, foucd the Dragoons juft upoa 
tbera, ready to come in. 

Any one who knew the Temper of the Place-, 
and the Conduft of the Gentlemen of Oxford 
tbetnfelves, could not but know they had been 
guilty of, may have fomeGuefsat the Surprize they 
were in, upon Ending the City full of Dragoons in 
the Morning before Day : Such f whole Thought 
were moft confeious, began to contrive Methods 
for Efcape j but finding the Avenues to the 
Town ail poflefs'd, and drift! y guarded by the 
Soldiers* they fat ft ill expefting the worfU 

In the mean time, the Mayor and the Vice- 
Chancellor attending the General, he fhewU 
them his Orders from the Secretary of State j 
letting them know, th?t he had foil Power to 
execute his Commiffion without their A Alliance : 
Bat th.it the Government, being tender of the 
Privileges of the Uoiverfixy, gave them an Op* 
portunity to do that by their Authomy, which, 
if they declin'd, he fhould be oblig'd to do 
without them 7 and then demanded of rhe Vice- 
G a, Chancellor* 

The above Is a fac-simile from the second volume uf 
Annals of George I. j Londou, 1717. 



OLD STYLE. 201 

Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nof 
quamdiu nos etiam furor ifte tuus eludet? quern ad fir 
tefe effrenata jactabit audacia tua? nihilne te nocturn 
presidium palatii, nihil urbis yigiliae, nee timor po 

Quoufque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia poft 
quamdiu nos etiam furor ifte tuus eludet? quern ad fi 
fefe effrenata jactabit audacia tuafmihilneltejiocturi 



Small Pica Roman. No. t. 

Quoufque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia noftra ? quam- 
diu nos etiam furor ifte tuus eludet \ quern ad finem fefe ef- 
frenaU jaftabit audacia? nihilne te no&urnum praefidiura 
palatii, nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil confen- 
ius bonorum omnium, nihil hie munitiflimus habendi fena- 
tus locus, nihil horum ora vultufque moverunt ? patere tua 
confilia non fentis ? conftriclam jam omnium horum confei-, 
entia teneri conjurationem tuam non vides ? quid proxima, 
quid fuperiore npfte egeris, ubi fuehs, quos convocaveris, 
quid confilii ceperis, quern noftrum ignorare arbitraris ? O 



Small Pica Roman. No. i. 

Quousaue~ tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? 
quamdiu nos etiam furor iste tuus eludet? quern ad finem 
sese effrenata jactabit audacia? nihilne te nocturnum pre- 
sidium palatii, nihil urbis vigilis, nihil timor populi, njhil 
consensus bonorum omnium, nihil hie munitissimus ha- 
bendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora vultusque moverunt? 
Eatere tua consilia non sentis? constrictam jam omnium* 
orum conscientia teneri conjurationem tuam non vides I 
quid proxima, quid superiore, nocte egeris ubi fueris, quos 
convocaveris, quid consilii ceperis, quern nostrum ignorare 



CHAPTER IX. 

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THIS WORK. 

Case. A frame divided into boxes, or compartments, for 
holding types. The upper case contains capitals ; the lower 
case, small letters. 

Chapel. An association of workmen in a printing-office. 

Chase. An iron frame in which the pages of matter are 
locked up. 

Doublet. A portion of a take repeated by the compositor. 
For instance : " It is of no use to lament our misfortunes, of 
no benefit to grieve over past mistakes." Suppose the com- 
positor to have set up as far as the second " no " inclusive, — 
he then glances at his copy for the following words, but his 
eye catches the first " no," and he resets what is already in his 
stick. Of course the proof will read thus : *' It is of no use to 
lament our misfortunes, of no use to lament our misfortunes, 
of no benefit to grieve over," etc. 

Form. The pages of matter inclosed in the chase. 

Galley. A frame which receives the contents of the com- 
posing-stick. When the stick is full, it is emptied upon a 
galley. 

Impose. To lay the made-up pages of matter on the stone, 
and fit on the chase in order to carry the form to press. 

Indention. The blank space at the beginning of a com- 
mon paragraph, or of a line of poetry, etc. When the first 
line is not indented, while the following lines of the paragraph 
have a blank space before them, the paragraph is said to be 
set with a " hanging indention." 

Specimen of Hanging Indention. 
Be It enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, In 
General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same. 
202 



TECHNICAL TERMS. 203 

Justify. To insert spaces between the words of a line of 
type, so that the line shall exactly fit the width of the stick. 

To Lock up a Form is to drive quoins (wedges) in such a 
manner as to hold the type firmly in the chase. 

To Make up is to adjust the matter in pages of equal 
length, as nearly as may be, for imposition. 

Matter. Types set up, so as to form a word or words. 
When it is to be distributed (put back into the cases), it is 
known as " dead" matter. If not yet printed, or if destined 
for further use, it is called " live " matter. 

Out. A portion of a take, accidentally omitted by a com- 
positor. An "out" is generally referable, as in the case of 
the ** doublet," to the recurrence of some word, or sequence of 
letters. For instance : a take had in it, " He injured his foot, 
by wearing a tight boot." The proof had, only, " He injured 
his foot." The compositor had the whole sentence in his mind ; 
and having set the final letters •« oot," referred these to the last 
word, " boot," and thought he had set the whole sentence. 

Quaere, or Query, variously abbreviated, as Qu. Qy. or 
Or., and sometimes represented by an interrogation point, is 
written in the margin of the proof-sheet, to draw the author's 
attention to some passage about which the proof-reader is in 
doubt. 

Revise. The second proof is a revise of the first, the third 
is a revise of the second, etc. To Revise is to compare the 
second, or any subsequent proof, with a preceding one, to see 
whether the proper corrections have been made. 

Shooting-Stick. A wedge-shaped piece of wood for 
tightening and loosening the quoins that wedge up the pages 
in a chase. 

Signature. A letter or figure at the bottom of the first 
page of every sheet. It denotes the proper order of the sheets 
in binding. 

Space. If a line of type be divided by vertical planes into 
exact squares, each of these squares occupies the space of an 
em, or em-quadrat. Ems are used to indent common para- 
graphs, and to separate sentences in the same paragraph. 



204 PENS AND TYPES. 

The next thinner space is the en, or en-quadrat, which is one- 
half of the em. The next is one-third of the em, and is called 
the three-em space ; next, one-fourth of the em is the four-em 
space; then, one-fifth of the em is the Jive-em space. Thinner 
than any of these is the hair-space. The three-em space is 
generally used in composition ; the other sizes are needed in 
justifying. 

Stick (Composing-Stick). A frame of iron or steel, in 
which the compositor sets up the type. By means of a mov- 
able slide, it can be adjusted to the required length of line. 

Stone. A table of marble, or other stone, on which forms 
are imposed, and on which they are placed for correction. 

Take. That portion of copy which the compositor takes to 
put in type (or " set up ") at one time. 



CHAPTER X. 
VARIOUS SIZES OF ROMAN LETTER— MODERN. 

Tfcto to » Hm of Diamond. 

This Is s line of Pearl. 

This is a line of Agate. 

This is a line of Nonpareil. 

This is a line of Minion. 

This is a line of Brevier. 

This is a line of Bourgeois. 

This is a line of Long Primer. 

This is a line of Small Pica. 

This is a line of Pica. 

This is a line of English. 

This is a line of Great Primer. 



VARIOUS SIZES OF ROMAN LETTER — OLD STYLE. 

This is a line of Nonpareil. 

This is a line of Minion. 

This is a line of Brevier. 

This is a line of Bourgeois. 

This is a line of Long Primer. 

This is a line of Small Pica. 

This is a line of Pica. 

This is a line of English. 

This is a line of Great Primer. 

205 



INDEX. 



ABBREVIATED words, how punctuated, 80. 

Abbreviations, Catalogue of fishes, 68. 

Abbreviations, mischievous, 26. 

Abbreviations of States, Territories, Post-offices, 60t 

" able," words ending in, 155-161. 

Accents, 121. 

Acute accent, 121. 

Adams' or Adams's, 94. 

Advertisement, Publishers', 3-^5. 

Aldus Manutius, 75. 

Alterations on Proof-sheet, 30. 

Ancient and modern methods of punctuation compared, 73-75. 

Apostrophe, 118-119. 

Attention to revising, 47. 

Authors' proofs, 47-49. 

Authors should punctuate their MS., 71. 

BBACE, The, 121. 

Brackets, 93, 94, 120. 

Briefs, Lawyers', 24, 25. 

Bureau or Academy yet wanted to settle all difficulties in syntax 

orthography, punctuation, etc., 65. 
Bureau, Smithsonian, of the English Language, desiderated, 65, 127. 

CANCELED words, how restored, 29. 

Capitalization, 171-194. 

Capitals and points, when to be mentioned by copy-holders, 45, 46, 

55,56. 
Capitals, Rules for use of, very flexible, 190. 
Captions, size of type, form of tables, etc., Directions for, furnished 

compositors and proof-readers, 37, 38. 
Caret, The, 121. 
Cedilla, The, 122. 
Chirography, Mercantile, 24, 26. 

207 



208 INDEX. 

Circumflex accent, 121. 

Close attention to revising, 47. 

Close pointing, 80. 

Colon, 97, 98. 

Comma between subject and predicate, 77-79. 

Comma, rules for use of, 100-112. 

Comma, use of, depending on taste in many cases, 80. 

Compositors and proof-readers punctuate, 36. 

Compositors and proof-readers should punctuate, if author neglects, 

71. 
Compositors' names on proofs, 46. 
Copy for printers, black ink on white paper, 31. 
Copy-holders' duty, 41. 

Copy to be followed closely in doubtful cases, 123. 
Correcting proof-sheets, Marks used in, 43, 45. 
Correctly spelled list of doubtful words, Webster style, 127-140. 
Correctly spelled list of doubtful words, Worcester style, 141-154. 
Court, Records of, 51. 
Court, Transcripts of Records of, with extraneous documents, 25. 

DASH, The, 89-91. 

Dash, the, Rules for use of, 114-118. 

Dash, used too freely by writers for the press, 90. 

D.D., LL.D., M.D., 181, 182. 

Difficulty of drawing line between words "up " and words " down," 
183-189. 

" Directions " for style of any work, frequently consulted, 37. 

" Directions," Samples of, 38-40. 

Discussion of various modes of spelling same word, 126. 

Distributing type, 33 ; results of error in, 34. 

Diversities of grammar and idiom — of orthography, etc., Smithsonian 
Institution might settle all controversies by Bureau of Lan- 
guage, whose rulings should be adopted in Governmental pub- 
lications, 65. 

Division of words on vowels or syllables, 87, 88. 

Division of words — to be avoided or not, 89. 

Doubtful orthography; double column lists in dictionaries, 125, 126. 

Doubtful words, query to author or editor, 31. 

Dr. Johnson and proof-reader, 32. 

Duty of copy-holder, 41. 

ECCENTRICITIES of orthography, punctuation, capitalization, 
etc., recorded for reference by proof-reader, while a work is in" 
progress, 37. 



INDEX. 209 

ei and ie. Rule for, 169. 
Ellipsis, or Omission, Marks of, 121. 
Employe* or Employee, 39. 
English Grammar defined, 72. 
Ensure and Insure differentiated, 170. 
Entire and Inure differentiated, 170. 
Erasures, to be made with ink, 29. 
Errors from mistakes in distributing, 34. 

Errors in MS. copy, corrected, or pointed out, in printing-office, 36. 
Errors, — marked in text, and correction denoted on margin, of proof- 
sheets, 41-45. 
Errors, rare, from printed copy, 18. 
Errors unavoidable, while present methods continue, 34. 
Esq., Jr., rules for, 181. 
Exclamation, note of, rules for use of, 113, 114. 

FAG-SIMILES of Old Style, 200, 201. 

Faults of manuscript reappear in proof-sheets, 25. 

First letter in line of poetry, 174. 

First proof, specimen of, 44. 

Footnotes in manuscript, 30. 

Footnotes, references to, 123. 

Foreign words italic, 57, 58. 

Foreign words roman, 58. 

Full point, or period, 96. 

GENERAL remarks on incongruities of style, 66-70. 

Gods, pagan, capitalized, 180. 

Golden rule of punctuation, 77. 

Grammatical points, 72. 

Grave accent, 121. 

Greek alphabet, 54. 

HANDWRITING of Clergymen, 22, 23. 

Handwriting of lawyers, 23-25. 

Handwriting of mercantile and business men, 24, 26. 

Handwriting of physicians, 27. 

Heathen deities, names of, to be capitalized, 180. 

Hyphen, 118. 

Hyphens in one-half, two-thirds, etc., 87. 

Hyphens in succession at end of lines, not to exceed three, 89* 

Hyphens, use of, 84-89. 



210 INDEX. 

I and J, 29. 

I and O, to be capitals, 180, 181. 

" ible," words ending in, 1(55-167. 

Illegibility of the writing, no damages, on account of the, 15. 

Importance of a and the, 188. 

Initial letters put up, 172-174. 

Ink, black, on white paper, for press, 31. 

Insure and Ensure differentiated, 170. 

Interrogation, note of, rules for use of, 112, 113. 

Inure and Enure differentiated, 170. 

" ise," words ending in, 168, 169. 

JUNIOR, Esquire, rules for, 181. 
Juxtaposition influences use of capitals, 189. 

LANGU AGE — " the foundation for the whole faculty of 
thinking " — should have the sharp oversight of those who 
would " diffuse knowledge among men," 65. 

Last reading for press; careful, deliberate, etc, 49-51. 

Lawyers' briefs, 24. 

Leaders, 121. 

Lead pencils, avoid, when writing for press, 31. 

Lead pencils, no erasure with, 28. 

Length of pause at the various points, 72, 73. 

Liberal pointing, 80. 

Ligated letters, Old Style, 195. 

Lines above and below a correction, to be compared when revising, 47. 

LL.D., D.D., M.D., 181, 182. 

MANUSCRIPT, faults of, reappear in proof-sheets, 25. 

Manuscript for the press, —black ink on white paper, 31. 

Manutii, The, 75; Manutius, Aldus, 75. 

" Mark-off," 47. 

Marks of Ellipsis, or Omission, 121. 

Marks of Parenthesis, 120. 

Marks of Quotation, 119, 120. 

Marks used in correcting proof-sheets, 43, 45. 

Matter " off its feet," 42. 

Meaning of " Put up " and " Put down," 171, 172. 

M.D., LL.D., D.D., 181, 182. 

Mercantile chirography, 24, 26. 

Method of reading points, capitals, etc., 46. 

Mingling of styles, 40. 



INDEX. 211 

NAMELY, viz., to wit, how punctuated, 82. 

Names of compositors on proofs, 46. 

Names of countries, states, ships, towns, streets, political parties, 

etc., capitalized, 182. 
Note of exclamation, rules for use of, 113, 114. 
Note of interrogation, rules for use of, 112, 113. 
Note on the " etc.," in Rule 7, on use of capitals, 183-189. 
Note-references, 123. 
Notes as to captions, size of type, form of tables, etc., to be furnished 

employees, 38. 
Nouns ending in o, plurals of, 167, 168. 

O and I, capitals, 181. 

O, nouns ending in, 167, 168. 

"Off its feet," 42. 

Old Style, 195-201. 

Omission, or Ellipsis, Marks of, 121. 

One correct spelling, according to Webster, of variously spelled 

words, 127-140. 
One correct spelling, according to Worcester, of variously spelled 

words, 141-164. 
One style for Governmental publications desiderated, 127. 
Orthography, 125-170. 
Orthography, definitions of, 125. 
Orthography; the Webster list of doubtful words (1500+) , in the one 

preferred manner of spelling, 127-140. 
Orthography; the Worcester list of doubtful words (1500+), in the 

one preferred manner of spelling, 141-154. 
Over-punctuated manuscript, 30. 

PAGINATION of MS., 29. 

Paragraph mark (f ), 122. 

Parenthesis, 92-94. 

Parenthesis, marks of, 120. 

Pauses and sense both indicated by punctuation, 75, 76. 

Period, or full point, 96. 

Personified things capitalized, 182. 

Physicians' chirography, 27. 

Plurals, when denoted by apostrophe and «, 94, 95. 

Pointing — close, liberal, 80. 

Points, capitals, etc., method of reading by copy-holder, 46. 

Points mark sense as well as pauses, 75, 76 

Possessive case of nouns singular ending in s, 94. 



212 INDEX. 

Preambles, resolves, and provisos, how punctuated, 81. 

Preferred spelling, Webster's, of 1500+ words of various orthography, 
127-140. 

Preferred spelling, Worcester's, of 1500+ words of various orthog- 
raphy, 141-154. 

Principal words capitalized, 175, 176. 

Printers, usually best proof-readers, 35. 

Professional men " at the case," 36. 

Proof-reader and Dr. Johnson, 32. 

Proof-readers and compositors punctuate, 36. 

Proof-reader, to query doubtful words, etc., 31. 

Proof-reading, 33-58. 

Proof-sheets, marks used in correcting, 43, 45. 

Proof-sheets, numbered in regular sequence, 46. 

Proof-sheets of Records of Court, 51. 

Proof-sheets, second reading and revising of, 47. 

Proofs, routine in regard to, 37. 

Proper nouns, having common form, put down, 183. 

Propinquity a reason for putting up or putting down, 189-192. 

Provisos, preambles, and resolutions, how punctuated, 81. 

Punctuation, 71-124 ; a modern art, 73. 

Punctuation, ancient and modern methods of, 73-75. 

Punctuation by compositor and proof-reader, 36. 

Punctuation, by one reader only, 47. 

Punctuation of viz., namely, to wit, 82. 

Punctuation, rules of, not fixed, 75. 

Punctuation, uniformity of, not attainable, 123. 

" Put down " and " Put up," meaning of, 171, 172. 

QUANTITY, marks or, 121, 122. 
Quotation marks, 119, 120. 

BEADING FINAL PROOF BEFORE PRINTING, 49-51. 

Beading Greek, 53-£6. 

Beading points and capitals, 46. 

Recapitulation of rules for right use of capitals, 192-194. 

Recipes — Greek and Latin, 27, 28. 

Records of Court, no alterations in, allowable, except clerical errors 

in punctuation, 51. 
Records of Court, transcripts of, with extraneous documents, 25. 
Records of Court, uniform style in, not to be sought at expense of 

departing from copy, 51. 



INDEX. 213 

Reference marks to footnotes and sidenotes, 123. 

Resolutions, preambles, and provisos, how punctuated, 81. 

Restoring canceled words, 29. • 

Revising, 47. 

Revising, in, great care required, 47. 

Rhetorical points, 72. 

Rules of punctuation, 96-118. 

Rules of punctuation not fixed, 75. 

Rules for capitalization very bendable, 190. 



SAMPLES OF DIRECTIONS AND NOTES TO PRINTERS, 36-40. 

Second proof, 46. 

Second reading of proof by copy, 47. 

Second, third, etc., revision of proof-sheets, 48. 

Section mark ($), 123. 

Semicolon, 98-100. 

Semicolon before as, when particulars follow a general statement, 83. 

Sense and pauses, both indicated by points, 75, 76. 

Sentences difficult and involved, compositor and proof-reader to fol- 
low copy carefully, 123, 124. 

Separation of words in manuscripts, 74. 

Size of type; captions; form of tables, etc., directions for, to be sup- 
plied, 38. 

Slips of proof, numbered in sequence, 46. 

Space before and after dash, 91. 

Spanish fi, 122. 

Specimen of first proof, 44. 

"Spectator" of 1711 wished for an Academy to settle differences be- 
tween grammar and idiom, 65. 

Spelling, errors in, silently corrected, 36. 

"Stet,"29. 

Style, 59-65. 

Style of the office, 4a 

Style of writing in the fifth century, 74. 

Style, peculiarities of, to be noted by proof-reader, for reference, 37. 

Styles, mingling of, 40. 

Styles; Worcester, Webster, and Office, 61. 

Subject and predicate, no comma between, except to prevent ambigu- 
ity, 77-79. 

Suggestions to writers for press, 28. 

Supreme Being, names, etc., of, capitalized, 176-180. 

Syllabication, 87-89. 



214 INDEX. 

TABLES, form of; size of type; style of captions, etc., sometimes 

furnished to compositors and proof-readers, 38. 
Technical terms used in this hook, 202-204. 
Tout-ensemble survey of a proof-sheet, 40. 
To wit, namely, viz., ending paragraph, how punctuated, 82. 
Two" Chapter V. 's," 30. 
Type, how distributed, 34. 

UMLAUT, 122. 

Uniformity— very important in some works, of no consequence in 

others, 52. 
Use of comma, in many cases, depends upon taste, 80. 

VARIETIES of style, 61-63. 

Various marks used in writing and printing, 118. 

Various sizes of type — modern, 205. 

Various sizes of type — old style, 205. 

Viz., namely, to wit ; ending paragraph, how punctuated, 83. 

Viz., namely, to wit; how punctuated, 82. 

WEBSTER'S PREFERRED COLUMNS OF WORDS OF DOUBTFUL ORTHOG- 
RAPHY, 127-140. 

Worcester's preferred columns of words of doubtful orthography, 
141-154. 

Words connected with a No. of designation, 182. 

Words doubtful, query, 31. 

Words ending in able, 155-164; in ible, 165-167. 

Words ending in we, 168, 169. 

Words from dead and foreign languages, 56-58. 

Words ending in cion, 169. 

Words 1. c when spelled in full, u. c. when contracted, 181. 

Words, not English, to be printed in italics, 57, 58. 

Words, not English, to be printed in roman, 58. 

Write plain English, 26. 

Writers for press should understand technics of proof-reading, 42. 

Writing, bad, robs compositors, 21-23. 

Writing becomes automatic, 19. 

Writing for the press, 15-32. 

Writing legibly, imperative, 21. 

Writing, illegibility of the, protects printers in suits for damages, 15. 



R EADINGS 



FDR HOME HALL 

AND SCHOOL 



Prepared by Professor LEWIS B. MONROE 

Founder of the Boston School of Oratory 



HUMOROUS READINGS In prose and verse For the use of schools 

reading-clubs public and parlor entertainments $1.50 

" The book is readable from the first page to the last, and every article 
contained in it is worth more than the price of the volume." — Providence 
Herald. 

MISCELLANEOUS READINGS In prose and verse $1.50 

" We trust this book may find its way into many schools, not to be used as 
a book for daily drill, but as affording the pupil occasionally an opportunity 
of leaving the old beaten track." — Rhode-island Schoolmaster. 

DIALOGUES AND DRAMAS For the use of dramatic and reading 
dubs and for public social and school entertainments $1.50 
*'* If the acting of dramas such as are contained in this book, could be intro- 
duced into private circles, there would be an inducement for the young to 
spend thel* evenings at home, instead of resorting to questionable public 
places."— Nashua Gazette. 

YOUNG FOLKS' READINGS For social and public entertainment $1.50 
. " Professor Monroe is one of the most successful teachers of elocution, as 
well ar a very popular public reader. In this volume he has given an unusu- 
ally fin* selection for home and social reading, as well as for public entertain- 
ments." —Boston Home Journal. 



DIALOGUES FROM DICKENS Arranged for schools and home 
amusement By W. Eliot Fette A.M. First series $1.00 

DIALOGUES AND DRAMAS FROM DICKENS Second series 
Arranged by W. Eliot Fette Illustrated $1.00 
The dialogues in the above books are selected from the best points of the 

stories, and can be extended by taking several scenes together. 

THE GRAND DICKENS COSMORAMA Comprising several unique 
entertainments capable of being used separately for school home or hall 
By G. B. Bartlett Paper 25 cents 

THE READINGS OF DICKENS as condensed by himself for his own 
use $1.00 

LITTLE PIECES FOR LITTLE SPEAKERS The primary, 
school teacher's assistant By a practical teacher x6mo. Illustrated 
Cloth 75 cents Also in boards 50 cents 

THE MODEL SUNDAY-SCHOOL SPEAKER Containing selec- 
tions in prose and verse from the most popular pieces and dialogues foi 
Sunday-school exhibitions Illustrated Cloth 75 cents Boards 50 cents 

" A book very much needed." 

Bold by all booksellers or sent by mall postpaid on receipt of prloe 

LEE AND SHEPABD Publishers Boston 



THB RBADINQ CLUB and Handy Speaker Being selections in prose 
and poetry Serious humorous pathetic patriotic and dramatic In z8 parts 
of 50 selections each Each part cloth 50 cents paper 15 cents 

THB POPULAR SPEAKER Containing the selections published ia 
the Reading Club Nos. 13 14 15 and 16 Cloth $1.00 

THB PREMIUM SPEAKER Containing the selections published in 
the Reading Club Nos. 9 10 zi and ia. Cloth $1.00 

THE PRIZE SPEAKER Containing the selections published in the 
Reading Club Nos. 567 and 8 Cloth $z.oo 

THE HANDY SPEAKER Combining the selections published in the 
Reading Club Nos. 133 and 4 Goth Over 400 pages $1.00 

BAKER'S HUMOROUS SPEAKER A compilation of popular selec- 
tions in prose and verse in Irish Dutch Negro and Yankee dialect Uni- 
form with " The Handy Speaker- " The Prise Speaker" "The Popular 
Speaker" " The Premium Speaker M Cloth $1.00 

Baker's Dialect Recitations 

YANKEE DIALECT RECITATIONS A humorous collection of the 

best stories and poems for reading and recitations Boards 50 cents 

Paper 30 cents 
MEDLEY DIALECT RECITATIONS A series of the most popular 

German French and Scotch readings Boards 50 cents Paper 30 cents 
IRISH DIALECT RECITATIONS A series of popular readings and 

recitations in prose and verse Boards 50 cents Paper 30 cents 
NEQRO DIALECT RECITATIONS A series of the most popular 

readings in prose and verse Boards 50 cents Paper 30 cents 
THE GRAND ARMY SPEAKER A collection of the best readings 

and recitations on the Civil War Boards 50 cents Paper 30 cents 

Baker's Original Plays and Dialogues 

A BAKER'S DOZEN Thirteen Original Humorous Dialogues Cloth 

75 cents Boards 50 cents 
THE TEMPERANCE DRAMA Eight Original Plays x6mo. Cloth 

75 cents Fancy boards 50 cents 
THE EXHIBITION DRAMA Original Plays Dramas Comedies Farces 

Dialogues etc. $1.50 
HANDY DRAMAS FOR AMATEUR ACTORS Doth $1.50 
THE DRAWING-ROOM STAGE Dramas Farces and Comedies for 

the amateur stage home theatricals and school exhibitions 111. $1.50 
THE SOCIAL STAGE Dramas Comedies Farces Dialogues etc foi 

home and school Illustrated $1.50 
THE MIMIC STAGE A new collection of Dramas Farces Comedies 

and Burlesques for parlor theatricals evening entertainments and school 

exhibitions Illustrated $1.50 
AMATEUR DRAMAS For parlor theatricals evening enter t a inment s 

and school exhibitions Illustrated $1.50 
THB GLOBE DRAMA Original Plays Illustrated $1.50 

Sold by all booksellers or sent by mall postpaid on receipt of prloa 

LEE AST) SHEPABD Publishers Boston 



I DVANCED 



ELOCUTIONARY ROOKS 



ADVANCED READINGS AND RECITATIONS By Austin B. 
Fletcher A.M. LL.B. late professor of oratory Brown University and 
Boston University School of Law This book has been already adopted in 
a large number of universities, colleges, post-graduate schools of law and 
theology, seminaries, etc $1.50 

"Professor Fletcher's noteworthy compilation has been made with rare 
rhetorical judgment, and evinces a sympathy for the best forms of literature, 
adapted to attract readers and speakers, and mould their literary taste." — 
Professor J. W. Churchill, Andover Theological Seminary. 

THE BOOK OP ELOQUENCE A collection of extracts in prose 
and verse from the most famous orators and poets By Charles Dudley 
Warner $1.50 

" What can be said that is more eloquent praise than that Charles Dudley 
Warner has carefully selected three hundred and sixty-four specimens of the 
choicest things from the world's literature? If there is any subject untouched, 
we fail to discover it. It is a compendium of the world's eloquence. It is 
useless to tell who is in here, for everybody is; and it is clear that Mr. Warner 
has made hl« extracts with great care. It has the most eloquence ever packed 
into twice as many pages." 

VOCAL AND ACTION LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND EX- 
PRESSION New edition By E. N. Kirby instructor in elocution in 
Harvard University $1.25 

" This is a treatise, at once scientific and practical, on the theory and art 
of elocution. It treats of the structure of the vocal organs, of vocal culture 
and expression, of action-language, gesticulation, the use of the body and 
hands in oratory, etc. # There is also a well-arranged collection of extracts for 
elocution. The work is well adapted for use as a text-book on elocution, and 
for study by professional students." — Indianapolis Journal. 

FIVE-MINUTE READINGS Selected and adapted by Walter K. 

Fobbs 50 cents 
FIVE-MINUTE DECLAMATIONS Selected and adapted by Walter 

K. Fobbs teacher of elocution and public reader 50 cents 
FIVE-MINUTE RECITATIONS By Walter K. Fobes 50 cents 

Pupils in public schools, on declamation days, are limited to five minutes 
each for the delivery of " pieces." There is a great complaint of the scarcity 
of material for such a purpose, while the injudicious pruning of eloquent 
extracts has often marred the desired effects. To obviate these difficulties 
new " Five-Minute " books have been prepared by a competent teacher. 

" We have never before seen packed in so small a compass so much that 
may be considered really representative of the higher class of oratory." — 
Boston Transcript. 

ELOCUTION SIMPLIFIED With an appendix on Lisping, Stammer- 
ing and other Impediments of Speech By Walter K. Fobes graduate of 
the " Boston School of Oratory " Cloth 50 cents. Paper 30 cents 
* The whole art of elocution is succinctly set forth in this small volume, 

which might be judiciously included among the text-books of schools.** •— 

New Orleans Picayune. 

Sold bg all book»ellers or tent by mall postpaid on rooolpt of prloo 

LEE AST) SHEPAKD Publiihen Bostoo 



I 



EE and«— POPULAR « « « « 

Shepard's ^ * handbooks 

Price, ••eli, u cloth, SO cents, except when other pries Is girt*. 
Forgotten Meanings; or an Hour with a Dictionary. By Altbib 
Wattes, author of Historical Student's Manual. 

Handbook of Elocution Simplified. By Walter K. Fores, with 
an Introdaction by George M. Bakes. 

Handbook of English 8ynonym8. With an Appendix, showing the 
Correct Use of Prepositions; also s Collection of Foreign Phrsses. By 
Looms J. Campbell. 

Handbook of Conversation. Its Faults and its Graces. Compiled by 
Andrew P. Pbabody, D.D., LL.D. Comprising: (I) Dr. Peabody's 
Address; (2)Mr. Trench's Lecture; (3) Mr. Parry Gwynne's "A 
Word to the Wise; or, Hint* on the Current Improprieties of Expression 
in Reading and Writing;" (4) Mistakes and Improprieties of Speaking 
anr^ Writing Corrected. 

Handbook of Punctuation and other Typographical Matters. For 
the Use of Printers, Authors, Teachers, and Scholars, By Marshall T. 
Bioelow, Corrector at the University Press, Cambridge, Mass. 

Handbook of Blunders. Designed toprevent 1,000 common blunders 
in writing snd speaking. By Harlan B*. Ballard, A.M., Principal of 
Lenox Academy, Lenox, Mass. 

Broken English. A Frenchman's Struggle in the English Language. 
Instructive ss a handbook of French conversation. By Professor E. C. 
Dubois. 

Beginnings with the Microscope. A working handbook containing 
simple instructions in the art snd method of using the microscope, and pre- 
paring articles for examination. By Walter P. Manton. 

Field Botany. A Handbook for the Collector. Containing instructions 
for gathering and preserving Plants, and the formation of an Herbarium. 
Also complete instructions in Leaf Photography, Plant Printing, and the 
Skeletonizing of Leaves. By Walter P. Manton. 

Taxidermy without a Teacher. Comprising a complete manual of 
instructions for Preparing and Preserving Birds, Animals, and Fishes, with 
a chapter on Hunting and Hygiene ; together with instructions for Preserv- 
ing Eggs, and Making Skeletons, and a number of valuable recipes. By 
Walter P. Manton. 

Insects. How to Catch and how to Prepare them for tho Cabinet. A 
Manual of Instruction for the Field-Naturalist. By W. P. Manton. 

What is to be Done? A Handbook for the Nursery, with Useful 
Hints for Children and Adults. By Robert B. Dixon, M.D. 

Whirlwinds, Cyclones, and Tornadoes. By William Morris 

Davis, Instructor in Harvard College. Illustrated. 

Mistakes in Writing English, and How to Avoid Them. 
For the use of all who Teach, Write, or Speak the language. By 
Marshall T. Bigelow. 

Mold by all booksellers, and sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of price. 
LEE AND SHEPARD Publishers Boston 



I 



EEjnd— pOPULAR 



^Shepard-3 l^ # h andboo ks 

Price, each, In cloth, 50 cents, except when other price is given. 

Warrington's Manual. A Manual for the Information of Officers 
and Members of Legislatures, Conventions, Societies, etc., in the practical 
governing and membership of all such bodies, according to the Parlia. 
mentary Law and Practice in the United States, hy W. 8. Robinson 
(Warrington). 

Practical Boat" Sailing. By Douglas Frazar. Classic size, $1.00. 

With numerous diagrams and illustrations. 
Handbook of Wood Engraving. With practical instructions in 

the art, for persons wishing to learn without an instructor. By William 

A. Emerson. Illustrated. Price $1.00. 

Five-Minute Recitations. Selected and arranged by Walteb K. 
Fobes. 

Five-Minute Declamations. Selected and arranged by Waltib 
K. Fobes. 

Five-Minute Headings for Young Ladies. Selected and adapted 
by Walteb K. Fobes. 

Educational Psychology. A Treatise for Parents and Educators* 
By Louise Parsons Hopkins, Supervisor in Boston Public Schools. 

The Nation in a Nutshell. A Rapid Outline of American History. 
By George Makepeace Towle. 

English Synonymes Discriminated. By Richard Whatblt, D.D., 
Archbishop of Dublin. A new edition. 

Hints on Writing and Speech-making. By Thomas Wbntwobth 

HlGGINSON. 

Arithmetic for Young Children. Being a series of Exercises 
exemplifying the manner in which Arithmetic should be taught to young 
children. By Horace Gbant. American Edition. Edited by Willabd 
Small. 

Bridge Disasters in America. The Cause and the Remedy. By 
Prof. George L. Vose. 

A Few Thoughts for a Young Man. By Horace Mann. A new 
Edition. 

Handbook of Debate. The Character of Julius Csssar. Adapted 
from J. Sheridan Knowles. Arranged for Practice in Speaking, for 
Debating Clubs, and Classes in Public and Private Schools. 



Mold by all booksellers, and sent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of price. 

LEE AND 8HEPARD Publishers Bostoo 



[ 



EE and— POPULAR « « « « 

Shepard's i * h andbooks 



e Prim, each, In cloth, 60 cents, except when other price /« gioen. 
Exercises for the Improvement of the Senses. For Young chu. 

dnn. By Horace Grant, author of " Arithmetic for Young Children." 

Bdtted by Willabd Small. 
Hints On Language in connection with Bight-Reading and Writing in 

Primary and Intermediate Schools. By S. Abthub Bent, AM., Super* 

intendent of Public Schools, Clinton, Maes. 
The Hunter's Handbook. Containing lists of provisions and camp 

paraphernalia, and hints on the fire, cooking utensils, etc.; with approved 

receipts for camp-cookery. By " An Old Hunteb." 

Universal Phonography; or, Shorthand by the "Allen Method." A 
self-instructor. By G. G. Allen. 

Hints and Helps for those who Write, Print, or Bead. By B. Debit, 
proof-reader. 

Pronouncing Handbook o' Three Thousand Words often Mispro- 
nounced. By B. Soule and L. J. Campbell. 

Short Studies of American Authors. By Thomas Wentwobth 

HlOGINSON. 

The Stars and the Earth J or, Thoughts upon Space, Time, and Eter. 
nity. With an introduction by Thomas Hill, D.D., LL.D. 

Handbook of the Earth. Natural Methods in Geography. By Louisa 
Pabsons Hopkins, teacher of Normal Methods in the Swain Free School, 
New Bedford. 

Natural-History Plays. Dialogues and Recitations for School Exhibi- 
tions. By Louisa P. Hopkins. 

f he Telephone. An account of the phenomena of Electricity, Magne- 
tism, and Sound, with directions for making a speaking-telephone. By 
Professor A. E. Dolbeab. 

Lessons on Manners. By Edith e. Wiggin. 

Water Analysis. A Handbook for Water-Drinkers. By G. L. Aus- 
tin, M.D. 

Handbook of Light Gymnastics. By Lucy b.Hunt, instructor in 

gymnastics at Smith (female) College, Northampton, Mass. 
The Parlor Gardener. -A. Treatise on the House-Culture of Ornamental 
Plants. By Cornelia J. Randolph. With illustrations. 



Sold by all booksellers, and tent by mail, postpaid, on receipt of price. 

LEE AND 8HEPARD Publishers Boston 



BRIGHT PQOKS OF TRAVEL 
BCC7V Q« » » « « 1 « « » 
KttZY BY SIX BRIGHT WOMEN 



A WINTER IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND MEXICO 

By Helen ) Sanborn. Cloth, $1.50. 

" A bright, attractive narrative by a wide-awake Boston fir!." 
A SUMMER IN THE AZORES, with a Glimpse of Madeira 
By Miss C. Alice Baker. Little Classic style. Cloth, gilt edges, $1 25. 

" Miss Baker gives us a breezy, entertaining description of these picturesque 
islands. She is an observing traveller, and makes a graphic picture of the 
quaint people and customs." — Chicago Advance. 
LIFE AT PUGET SOUND 
With sketches of travel in Washington Territory, British Columbia, Oregon, 



cannot fad to help the Indian and the Chinese/' — Wendell Phillips. 

EUROPEAN BREEZES 

By Margery Dbanb. Cloth, gilt top, $1.50. Being chapters of travel 
through Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Switzerland, covering places not 
usually visited by Americans in making " the Grand Tour of the Conti- 
nent, by the accomplished writer of " Newport Breezes." 
" A very bright, fresh and amusing account, which tells us about a host of 

things we never heard 01 before, and is worth two ordinary books of European 

travel." — Woman's Journal. 

BEATEN PATHS ; or, A Woman's Vacation in Europe 

By Ella W. Thompson. x6mo, cloth. $1.50. 
A lively and chatty book of travel, with pen-pictures humorous and graphic, 

that are decidedly out of the " beaten paths " of description. 

AN AMERICAN GIRL ABROAD 

By Miss Adeline Trafton, author of "His Inheritance," "Katharine 
Earle/'etc. i6mo. Illustrated. $1.50. 
" A sparkling account of a European trip by a wide-awake, intelligent, end 

irrepressible American girl. Pictured with a freshness and vivacity that is 

delightful." — Utica Observer 

CURTIS GUILD'S TRAVELS 
BRITONS AND MUSCOVITES; or, Traits of Two Empires 

Cloth, $2.00. 

OVER THE OCEAN; or. Sights and Scenes in Foreign Lands 

By Curtis Guild, editor of " The Boston Commercial Bulletin.' Crown 8vo. 

Cloth, $2.50. 

" The utmost that any European tourist can hope to do is to tell the old 
story in a somewhat fresh way, and Mr. Guild has succeeded in every part of 
his book in doing this." — Philadelphia Bulletin. 
ABROAD AGAIN ; or, Fresh Forays in Foreign Fields 
Uniform with "Over the Ocean." By the same author Crown 8vo. 

Cloth, $2.50. 

" He has given us a life-picture. Europe is done in a style that must serve 
as an invaluable guide to those who go ' over the ocean,' as well as an in 
esting companion." — Halifax Citinen. 



iold by all booksellers, and sent by mall, postpaid, on receipt of prtot 

LEE AND SHEPABD Publishers Boston 



NARRATIVES 



OF NOTED- 



TRAVELLERS 



GERMANY SEEN WITHOUT SPECTACLES; or, Kandoro 
Sketches of Various Subjects, Penned from Different Stand- 
points in the Empire 
By Henry Rugglbs, late United States Consul at the Island of Malta, and 

at Barcelona, Spain. $1.50. 

" Mr. Ruggles writes briskly: he chats and gossips, slashing right and left 
with stout American prejudices, and has made withal a most entertaining 
book." — New-York Tribune. 
TRAVELS AND OBSERVATIONS IN THE ORIENT, with « 

Hasty Flight in the Countries of Europe 
By Walter Harriman (ex-Governor of New Hampshire). $1.50. 

" The author, in his graphic description of these sacred localities, refers 
with great aptness to scenes and personages which history has made famous 
It is a chatty narrative of travel.** — Concord Monitor, 
PORE AND APT 
A Story of Actual Sea-Life. By Robert B. Dixon, M.D. $1.35. 

Travels in Mexico, with vivid descriptions of manners and customs, form a 
large part of this striking narrative of a fourteen-months' voyage. 
VOYAGE OP THE PAPER CANOE 
A Geographical Journey of Twenty-five Hundred Miles from Quebec to the 

Gull of Mexico. By Nathaniel H. Bishop. With numerous illustra- 
tions and maps specially prepared for this work. Crown 8vo. $1.50. 

" Mr. Bishop did a very bold thing, and has described it with a happy 
mixture of spirit, keen observation, and bonhomie.** — London Graphic. 
POUR MONTHS IN A SNEAK-BOX 
A Boat Voyage of Twenty-six Hundred Miles down the Ohio and Mississippi 

Rivers, and along the Gulf of Mexico. By Nathaniel H. Bishop. With 

numerous maps and illustrations. $1.50. 

"His glowing pen-pictures of 'shanty-boat* life on the great rivers are 
true to hie. His descriptions of persons and piaces are graphic." — Z ion's 
Herald. 
A THOUSAND MILES' WALK ACROSS SOUTH AMERICA, 

Over the Pampas and the Andes 
By Nathaniel H. Bishop. Crown 8vo. New edition. Illustrated. $1.50. 

" Mr. Bishop made this journey when a boy of sixteen, has never forgotten 
h, and tells it in such a way that the reader will always remember it, and 
wish there had been more." 
CAMPS IN THE CARIBBEES 
Being the Adventures of a Naturalist Bird-hunting in the West-India Islands. 

By Fred A. Obbr. New edition. With maps and illustrations. $1.50. 

"During two years he visited mountains, forests, and people, that few, if 
any, tourists had ever reached before. He carried his camera with him, and 
photographed from nature the scenes by which the book is illustrated." ■— 
Louisville Courier-Journal. 
ENGLAND PROM A BACK WINDOW; With Views of 

Scotland and Ireland 
By J. M. Bailey, the " ' Danbury News' Man.** xsmo. $x.eo. 

" The peculiar humor of this writer is well known. The British Isles have 
sever before been looked at in just the same way, — at least, not by any one 
who has notified us of the fact. Mr. Bailey's travels possess, accordingly, a 
value of their own for the reader, no matter how many previous records of 
Journeys in the mother country he may have read." — Rochester Express. 

told by all booksellers, and sent by mall, postpaid, on receipt of prim 

LEE ADD SHEFAEB Publishers Boston 



CVERY- - DU8INE88 - N °L ES 

L ### DAY JU * Practical Details 

Arranged for Young People by M. S. EMERY 

Price, cloth, 50 cents 

^N accurate knowledge of how to attend to the every-day affairs of a 
U business life is, indeed, a most valuable possession. The require- 
F * raent* of modern business life are manifold and exacting;, demand- 
" ing technical information, and, besides, quite a degree of what may 

justly be termed "cultivation." This valuable and indispensable 
book covers a wide range of information of much importance, and is 
designed as a text-book for schools, and for ready reference for young 
people and those who need such instruction as it contains. It treats in 
an attractive and clear manner subjects which bear on every-day callings, 
like •• Letter-writing," by which so large a percentage of business is con- 
ducted; " Bills, Receipts, and Accounts; " "Post-Omce Business," with 
instructions regarding late advantages and scope of accommodation; 
" Telegrams," " Express Business," " United States Money," *' Savings 
Banks," " National Banks," " Bank Checks," «• Notes and Drafts," 
" Mortgages," " Investment and Speculation," " Taxes," •' Fire Insur- 
ance," and "Life Insurance." These are topics conveying a general 
idea of the worth of the book — topics about which business men must 
know, and covering that which they who would be business men must 
learn. Keeping relatively abreast of modern methods, the educators of 
our day see the necessity of imparting business knowledge, as well as that 
which is purely scientific, historical, or literary in its nature; hence, the 
adaptability or " Every-Day Business " to the necessities of American 
schools and our progressive ways of life. 



A N .. H ° u m R ™DELSARTE 

A Study of Expression, by Anna Morgan, of the Chicago Con. 
servatory. Illustrated by Rosa Mueller Sprague and Marian 
Reynolds, with full-page figure illustrations, 4*0, cloth, $3.00. 

•' This beautiful quarto volume presents the ideas of Delsarte in words 
which all may understand. It is explicit and comprehensible. No one 
can read this book or study its twenty-two graceful and graphic illustra- 
tions without perceiving the possibility of adding strength and expres- 
sion to gestures and movements, as well as simplicity and ease. Mr. 
Turveydrop went through life with universal approval, simply by his 
admirable * deportment. Every young person may profitably take a hint 
from his success, and this book will befound invaluable as an instructor.' 1 
— Woman's Journal, Boston. 

" ' Flexibility and grace' are the watchwords of this great teacher, and 
it must be conceded that the charming young ladies who serve as models 
throughout the book have their share of these two desiderata of ex. 
pression ; this book gives an altogether charming' insight into Delsarte's 
system, and no young lady who desires to acquire ease of manner and 
grace of carriage could do better than to read it carefully. The style is 
quite in keeping with the subject, light, graceful, and entertaining." — 
American Stationer, ^_^^_^^___^^____ 

Sold by all booksellers and sent by mail postpaid on receipt of price 

LEE AND SHEPARD Publishers Boston 



T 



0012S*- 



FOR 
THE 



Teacher's W orkshop 



METHODS AND AIDS IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY 
By Charles F. King A.M. Head-master of the Dearborn School Boston 

Price $1.60 net 
" This is a work independent of any geography, and maybe used by teachers 
equally well with any of the authorized text-books. The numerous illustrations 
in this volume are of a practical nature, being generally diagrams, charts, and 
simple devices, such as a teacher may easily draw upon a blackboard to illus- 
trate the teaching of geography, and the book will be received as ai excellent 
addition to the aids which modern instructors desire in their work." 
EXCELLENT QUOTATIONS for Home and School 
For the Use of Teachers and Pupils By Julia P. Horn* Deputy Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction State of California Cloth 75 cents net 
" Contains choice excerpts from the productions of eminent authors, at home 
and abroad, in prose and poetry. Poetry of the highest order, eloquent 
biographical eulogies, patriotic selections, recitations for young pupils, and 
several pages of proverbs, give this book a secure place in the home and school." 
CHIPS PROM A TEACHER'S WORKSHOP 
By L. R. Klemm Ph.D. late Superintendent of Public Schools Hamilton 

Ohio Cloth $1.20 net 
" This work is among the first we have ever seen that puts the young teacher 
on the right track and keeps him there through all the departments of his work. 
It is thoroughout based upon common sense. It teaches principles, but the 
principles are always presented concretely in a form to be understood. This is 
really the teacher's vade mecutn. If it could be put into the hands of every 
instructor in our public schools, it would work a revolution in our methods of 
education and in the results achieved." — School Journal. ^ 

Dr. Klemm has now in preparation, nearly ready for publication, his second 
volume, entitled " Chips from Educational Workshops in Europe." 
PIRST STEPS WITH AMERICAN AND BRITISH AUTHORS 
By Albert F. Blaisdbll A.M. author of " Study in the English Classics" 
M Our Bodies and How we Live " " How to Keep Well " ,? Child's Book 
of Health " Cloth 75 cents net 
" The plan of the book is unique, attractive, and thoroughly philosophical. 
In a general way, the plan is to study the text of a few representative authors, 
and not merely to read about many authors. It is to study what great authors 
have written, and not what some one has written about them. Every thing is 
made subordinate to this great aim. In the first few chapters, the method of 
studying a given subject is fully explained and illustrated." — True Education. 
METHODS IN ZOOLOGY TEACHING POR BEGINNERS 
For Teachers in Common Schools By Walter P. Manton M.D. author 
of "Field Botany" "Insects" ''Beginnings with the Microscope " 
" Taxidermy " Cloth 50 cents 
Dr. Manton has been very successful in his practical helps in various 
branches of study, and this manual will prove welcome to all interested in this 
subject The book is clearly and concisely written, and the directions are plain 
and to the point, the different instruments and tools necessary being fully 
illustrated and explained. 

HOW SHALL MY CHILD BE TAUGHT? 
Practical Pedagogy or the Science of Teaching Illustrated By Louisa 
Parsons Hopkins Supervisor in Boston Public Schools Cloth $1.20 net 
"The Boston Herald " says: " Mrs. Louisa Parsons Hopkins has made a 
careful study of the science of teaching, and her book will be of the greatest 
service to those who are engaged in the tasks of primary teaching. She is less 
didactic than experimental in her methods; but the points which she makes 
are those that lead to success, because they have been proved in the school- 
room, and have the authority of the great schoolmasters of modern times." 

Sa/d&y all booksellers t and when sent by mail, ten per cent to be added 
for postage 

LEE AND SHEP&KD 'BtN&tam ^ta&HL